Digital Library of Georgia > "Thar's Gold in Them Thar Hills": Gold and Gold Mining in Georgia, 1830s-1940s

"Thar's Gold in Them Thar Hills"
Players and Places

A | B | C | D | E-F | G | H-I | J-K | L | M | N-O | P-Q | R | S | T | U-V | W

A

Adams, F. R.
Professor at Ohio Wesleyan University who lives in Delaware, Ohio and serves on the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898.

Adams, J. W.
President and member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. Adams resides in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In 1888, J. W. Adams and H. S. Chamberlain help raise $30,000 to purchase property for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.

Alabama Warehouse
Amory Dexter's cotton warehouse in Columbus, Georgia.

Alaska-Mexican Mine (Alaska)
Mining operation just south of Treadwell, Alaska. The prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company describes operations and profits of the Alaska-Mexican Mine to illustrate the potential of gold mining. The Alaska-Mexican Gold Mining Company is formed in 1891. Following extensive exploration, the company erects a sixty-stamp mill and begins processing ore in 1893. Part of the Treadwell mining complex, the mine employs an average of 145 men per year from 1894 to 1916.

Alaska-Treadwell Mine (Alaska)
Large-scale mining operation at Douglas Island, Alaska, about half a mile from the town of Douglas. Douglas Island lies across the Gastineau Strait from Juneau, and during peak production at the mines, the towns of Treadwell and Douglas surpass the population of Juneau. The prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company describes operations and profits of the Alaska-Treadwell Mine to illustrate the potential of gold mining. The Treadwell Mine is the largest in the world in its time. One hundred tons of gold are extracted between 1881 and 1917. Around 1898, the mine has over 500 stamps. The Treadwell mine features an employee benefit program that includes relatively high wages, a stock purchase plan, paid medical care from any doctor, and cottages for married couples at twenty-five dollars per month. Additionally, mine employees enjoy a social club sponsored by the mine, which includes a marble-lined swimming pool, gymnasium, dance hall, 500-seat theater, billiards room, bowling alley, library, sauna, and Turkish baths. The Treadwell mining complex includes the Ready Bullion Mine, 700-Foot Mine, and Mexican Mine, in addition to the Treadwell Mine. The gold begins to run out in 1916, leading the company to mine pillars of ore left behind to hold up the ceiling, without replacing them with wood or metal support beams. Minor cave-ins occur and cracks begin appearing. On April 21, 1917, a huge sinkhole swallows the swimming pool of the Treadwell Club and falls below the level of high tide. The mine is soon flooded by seawater, but is successfully evacuated with no loss of human life. Treadwell becomes nearly deserted. Only one mine, saved by a concrete bulkhead, continues to function with a workforce of 500 until the participation of the United States in World War I makes Treadwell a ghost town.

Alford Pharmacy
Possibly located in Dahlonega.

Allen, E. D.
Possibly a drug store proprietor.

Allen, Joseph
Captain, Second South Carolina Infantry Rifles, Company A. In 1884, Allen is elected a school trustee in the Davis District. He is a member of the board of directors of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891. The Nugget reports in 1897 that Allen is one of seventeen Dahlonega citizens weighing over 200 pounds; he weighs 205.

American House
In 1880, William Sumner Hungerford writes to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd from the American House hotel in Lake City, Colorado.

Amory
Landowner who receives rent from the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company.

Amory, Charles Bean, 1841-(?)
Captain, Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Company F, I. Amory Dexter relates to Wier Boyd that one of the Amory heirs, with an interest in the sale of the Amory Mineral Right, is Char. Amory's sister, Mrs. Austin. Char. Amory may be Charles Bean Amory.

Amory place
Around 1882, Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd attempts to sell the Amory place for Mr. Austin, who lives in Boston, Massachusetts. Amory Dexter confides to Boyd that he does not think Austin will spend any money to improve the property for sale.

Anderson, Mr.
Amory Dexter advises Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd to engage Anderson to bring the timber cart back from the mill.

Annie Gold Mining Company
J. B. Thomas writes to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that he has nothing with which to pay his debt but a quarter interest in the lease of the Annie gold mine.

Anthony, J. D., Mrs.
Owner of a copy of the Announcement of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company. The name scrawled above hers on the title page, R. H. Phillipson, is crossed out. She may be the wife of J. D. Anthony of Dahlonega who, in 1848, assists with a Methodist Church revival that increases membership.

Archer, R.
In the lawsuit Rudolph v. Gayden, Amzi Rudolph, acting as agent of the Augusta and Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, charges that Jasper Gayden does not have a legitimate claim to the land he occupies. Deputy Sheriff John C. Early resolves the dispute by giving R. Archer free and full possession of the land. Archer's relationship to the parties to the suit is not clear from the document recording the resolution.

Atlanta (Ga.)
In 1868, as the center for southern Restoration following the Civil War, Atlanta replaces Milledgeville as the capital of Georgia, and becomes the meeting place of several railroads. In 1870, the population of Atlanta is less than 25,000, but by 1900, the population swells to almost 90,000. When President McKinley visits Atlanta in 1898, William Pierce Price presents him with a gold nugget symbolizing friendship and genuine hospitality.

Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company
Wier Boyd serves as defense attorney for the company in the 1867 case Oats v. Early.

Auraria (Ga.)
Originally known as Nuckollsville, Auraria is renamed by Senator John C. Calhoun in 1832 to reflect the discovery of gold in the region. "Auraria" means "city of gold" in Latin. In ten months Auraria grows to a population of 1,000, but it loses the county seat to smaller Dahlonega in 1833. The establishment of the Branch Mint of the United States at Dahlonega in 1838 drives another nail into Auraria's coffin. The California Gold Rush drains Auraria of its population, and it never recovers. In 1858, the "Russell Boys" led by Green Russell travel west and establish another Auraria, which becomes part of Denver, Colorado. Only a few houses remain in Auraria, which is an unincorporated community.

Austin, Mr.
Relative of Amory Dexter, who lives in Boston, Massachusetts. Worried that Dr. Vandyke will not meet his obligations, Amory Dexter emphasizes to Wier Boyd the expense and trouble to which Austin has been put traveling to get paperwork certified. Dexter asks Boyd to return the Amory deed if he expects no immediate sale, so that he can deliver the deed to Austin when he travels to Boston. Dexter adds that Austin is not likely to spend money to improve the property.

Austin, Mrs.
Relative of Amory Dexter, with financial interests in Dahlonega.

B [return to top]

Bailey, H. W.
Officer of the Annie Gold Mining Company. He may be involved in mining operations in Utah and Nevada after 1900.

Banks Brothers
William Sumner Hungerford suggests that Wier Boyd send a check to Banks Brothers for certification before forwarding it to him in Colorado.

Barlow Mill
Located about four miles southwest of Dahlonega, the Barlow Mill is situated in the Pigeon Roost area. Originally a forty-stamp mill, the Barlow has only ten stamps by 1898. The mill is powered by a forty-inch Hunt wheel. There are nine houses on the property, which is attached to a small farming lot.

Barlow Mine (Ga.)
The prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company features a photograph of gold panning on Cane Creek at the Barlow Mine, which is part of the Consolidated company in 1898, and amounts to 710 acres. Worked since the 1860s, the mine includes two ten-stamp mills. One mill is driven by water from the Hand Canal, while the other is driven by Cane Creek water. The Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company proposes to consolidate the two mills into one twenty-stamp mill. The Barlow Mine includes the Pigeon Roost Mine north of Auraria, worked in the 1930s. Thirty-four of the forty-acre gold lots drawn in the 1832 land lottery form the Barlow mine. The principal lot is drawn by Martin Strother of Newton County, who sells it to Farish Carter. Since the Barlow is considered to be the richest of mines, Carter is known widely as the richest man in Georgia.

Bearden place
One of the lots on the Chestatee River sold to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company in 1867. In 1837, Roland Bearden is the foreman of the jury in a case against John Humphries, who receives payment to build the Lumpkin County Courthouse, but never begins construction. Humphries skips town, and the Inferior Court sues his sureties. The jury decides for the Inferior Court, awarding $3,234.60 in principal, interest and court costs. Kimsey Bearden is a member of the Grand Jury of Lumpkin County that initiates improvements in public schools in 1859.

Becker, Dr.
As mentioned in the Announcement of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company, Becker identifies a saprolite belt soft enough to be worked using a giant, a hydraulic mining hose.

Beeson, R. O.
Trustee of the property of the Phoenix Gold Mining Company, who receives a deed of correction from the Etowah Gold Mining Company regarding property acquired from them. F. E. Dickie mentions Beeson as part of his argument that Otto C. Scupin has no legal claim to the property.

Bendigo Mine (Vic.)
Located in central Victoria, Australia, Bendigo is a large inland city north of Melbourne. Gold is discovered in Bendigo by Margaret Kennedy, the wife of an overseer, in 1851. Thousands of miners descend on this once quiet rural area inhabited by the Jaara aboriginal tribe. Bendigo's population is over 23,000 at the height of the Gold Rush. By 1854, over 3,000 Chinese immigrants live in Bendigo, and heavily influence its development. Bendigo may be named after a shepherd well known for his fighting skills, who worked in the district during the nineteenth century. The Bendigo Gold Field spans almost 9,000 acres. Over the course of a century, Bendigo yields about twenty-two million ounces of gold, chiefly from underground quartz reef mines. Revived in the 1930s, the Deborah Gold Mine in the center of Bendigo remains a working mine.

Besser, Charles A., 1811-1898
Besser, who comes to Dahlonega from Germany in 1841, is originally a tailor. Before the Civil War, he is one of four military tailors in Dahlonega. In 1850, when Besser goes to live in California for a few years, the Masons purchase a Lodge Hall on the public square from him for $750. When Besser returns from California, he begins buying property and becomes a prominent citizen. Decades later, Amory Dexter asks Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd if Besser can provide them lodging. Originally a Lutheran, Besser joins the Methodist Church. One of the first dwellings constructed in Dahlonega, the Besser House is originally used as a hotel for many years by Harrison W. Riley. In 1876, Besser buys the Riley Hotel and, aided by his son Bismarck, repairs it for summer visitors. In 1886, Besser is a member of the board of trustees of North Georgia College. In 1898, Besser becomes too feeble to live alone, and he moves to Atlanta to be with his two sons. He sells the Besser House to Frank W. Hall, who repairs the old landmark. Besser dies in Atlanta at the age of eighty-seven. His final wish is to spend one more night in his little house in Dahlonega. When his remains arrive in Dahlonega, they are carried to his house to remain overnight before burial. A Mason, Besser is laid to rest by members of the Blue Mountain Lodge. Humorous stories are told about fastidious Uncle Charley. In the nineteenth century, it is common to cut a hole in the door through which the pet cat can enter. At one time, Besser has two cats, a huge Maltese and a kitten. He has a large cat-hole constructed in a corner of the door for the Maltese. Pleased with the workmanship, he orders a second cat-hole cut on the other side of the door for the kitten.

Black Wonder Consolidated Mining Company
William Sumner Hungerford may be the superintendent of this company in 1881. In a letter to Wier Boyd, he crosses out the name of another man identified as the superintendent on company letterhead. The Black Wonder Mine is located in Sherman, in Hinsdale County, Colorado. In 1895, the mine is combined with the West End Mining Company, and is known as the Black Wonder & West End Gold Mining Company. It appears from an 1895 stock certificate that the company is formed in Boston, Massachusetts.

Blake, William P. (William Phipps), 1826-1910
A professor at Yale College who reports on the gold field and waterpower available to properties in the Dahlonega area. Blake considers the Dahlonega property the largest and most uniform deposit of gold in America. His evaluation leads to the formation of the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company in Boston, with a capital of one million dollars. The 1878 prospectus of the Findley Gold Mining Company describes Blake as a geologist and mining engineer of national repute. He is one of the geologists associated with the Pacific Railroad Survey of the Far West.

Blake, J. H.
Amory Dexter asks Delano for the authority to use his name along with others, J. H. Blake among them, who assert that Hand colluded with Frank W. Hall contrary to company interest. J. H. Blake may be a stockholder in the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company.

Bones, John
An officer of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company when it is created in 1863.

Boody, David Augustus, 1837-1930
New York banker of D. A. Boody & Co., who serves on the board of directors and as president of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878. Born in Jackson, Maine, Boody attends the common schools and Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He studies law, and is admitted to the bar in 1860 at Belfast, Maine, but commences practice in Camden, Maine. In 1862 Boody moves to Brooklyn, New York, and engages in the banking and brokerage business. He is an unsuccessful candidate for election to the Forty-eighth Congress in 1882, but serves as a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1884 and 1892. Boody serves as the president of Berkeley Institute in Brooklyn from 1886 to 1922. Elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-second Congress, Boody serves from March 4 to October 13, 1891, when he resigns to run for mayor of Brooklyn, an office he holds in 1892 and 1893. After serving as mayor, Boody resumes banking. He is president of the board of trustees of the Brooklyn Public Library from 1897 until his death. A member of the New York Stock Exchange, Boody retires in 1926 and resides in Brooklyn until his death.

Boody, D. A., & Co. (see Boody, David Augustus)
A banking and brokerage firm based in Brooklyn, New York.

Booth, James Curtis, 1810-1888
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Booth is educated at classical schools in Philadelphia, then at Hartsville Seminary, and graduates from the University of Pennsylvania in 1829. He continues his education with a year at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he receives his Ph. D. In 1832, he travels to Germany to study chemistry in Wohler's private laboratory in Cassel. He spends some time in Vienna under G. Magnus in Berlin. Afterward Booth devotes himself to the study of technical chemistry at various places in Germany and England until 1835. In 1836 he establishes a laboratory in Philadelphia, the first of its kind in the United States, for instruction in chemical analysis and chemistry applied to the arts. A course under Dr. Booth is considered essential to those who study chemistry, and many of his students become well-known. During the same year (1836), he becomes professor of applied chemistry at the Franklin Institute. In 1849 he is appointed smelter and refiner of the United States Mint in Philadelphia. His published papers cover topics spanning the domains of analytical and technical chemistry. He is president of the American Chemical Society in 1884 and 1885. Booth and his colleague Garret assay five samples taken from the Findley Mine in 1878.

Booth & Garret (see also Booth, James Curtis)
Chemists of the Philadelphia Mint in 1878. The Findley Gold Mining Company prospectus provides average results of their assays of five samples taken from the Great Sand Vein.

Boston (Mass.)
Amory Dexter alludes in letters to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that the Yahoola Mining Company is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. Dexter thinks that board members in Boston will decide to erect a mill.

Boyd & Boyd
Dahlonega law firm created by Wier Boyd and his son, Marion Goodman Boyd.

Boyd, Marion Goodman, 1850-1898
Son and law partner of Colonel Wier Boyd. Born January 9, 1850 in Dahlonega, Ga., Marion Boyd becomes a lawyer and statesman. He graduates from Emory College in 1869, and reads law under his father. He takes the bar exam, and is admitted to the Bar in August 1870. In 1877, he is elected state senator. After serving his term, he retires from public life until asked to run again in 1894, when he is elected by a large majority. He is a Royal Arch Mason and a prominent member of the Methodist Church, serving as a representative at the North Georgia Annual Conference. He dies on July 7, 1898, at the age of forty-eight.

Boyd, Wier G., 1820-1893
Colonel, Fifty-second Georgia Volunteer Infantry. Born September 14, 1820, in Hall County, Georgia, Boyd comes to Dahlonega in the 1830s. He is a student at the Old Academy, a private school in Dahlonega. He marries Sarah J. Sitton on February 9, 1843. (Born in 1824, Sarah outlives her husband and sons Augustus and Marion, living until 1905.) Boyd is elected clerk of the Superior Court in 1850, and moves to Dahlonega. He is admitted to the bar in 1856, and later represents his county and district in both branches of the Georgia legislature. At the beginning of the Civil War, Boyd reads the governor's proclamation, and calls for volunteers to fill the requisition of the state upon Lumpkin County. Though the required number of volunteers is only 110 men, 150 men volunteer, including Boyd. He is soon elected colonel of the Fifty-second Georgia Volunteer Infantry. He resigns later in 1862, due to typhoid fever. His son Augustus Franklin Boyd also serves in the Fifty-second Georgia Regiment, as captain of Company B, and is tragically killed while rallying his men on May 16, 1863, during the battle at Baker's Creek, Mississippi. The Gus Boyd Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy, organized in 1905, is named for Augustus, at the suggestion of Colonel William Pierce Price. After the Civil War, Boyd is chosen to be a member of the Georgia Constitutional Convention, which drafts the state constitution in 1877. An attorney in Dahlonega, Boyd forms a partnership with his son Marion, and acts as a broker, collector and liaison for a number of clients. He is also a member of the Masonic Lodge, and a minister, and is instrumental in establishing the post offices in Jay and Dahlonega. Although Wier Boyd is originally a Presbyterian, and on the board of trustees of the Presbyterian Church, the Boyds become Methodists and are among the prominent "tent" holders at the Cedar Mountain Campground, ten miles north of Dahlonega. In the early part of October each year, the most enthusiastic and devout members of the Methodist Church (along with some Baptists and unaffiliates) assemble for a series of religious services continuing for a week or more. Boyd is one of the preachers at these camp meetings. At its height, the campground features around thirty "tents" constructed of wood and supplied with a rude chimney, beds, benches, and the like. A whole family and several guests moves into each tent to live, eat, and sleep there during the meeting. Another of Boyd's sons, J. W. Boyd, becomes a professor of mathematics, first at Young Harris College, and then at North Georgia College. J. W. Boyd later becomes a minister, and is elected without opposition as state senator to represent the Thirty-second District from 1907 to 1908. He introduces legislation to pave roads between counties, laying the foundation for the present highway system. Mattie Boyd, who marries Professor B. Palmer Gaillard, is Wier Boyd's daughter. Born in 1854, she lives until 1925. She serves as president of the Corona Hedaera Society, a society for young ladies. Boyd serves as defense attorney for the Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company in the case Oats v. Early, 1867. When the main building of North Georgia College, the old Mint building, burns down, Boyd and other members of the board of trustees meet to plan rebuilding the college. The Signal acknowledges in 1892 that Boyd is one of the seven known soldiers of the Indian wars prior to 1843 in Lumpkin County. He dies November 8, 1893 in Dahlonega.

Branch Mint of the United States at Dahlonega, Georgia
The United States government opens three branch mints in 1838, in North Carolina, Louisiana, and Georgia. Prior to the operation of the Mint, miners have to trade gold dust or nuggets for goods, and the merchants decide how much the gold is worth. The Mint allows miners to have their gold converted into coins of standard value. More than $6,000,000 in gold coins is minted in the short history of the Dahlonega Mint, which is closed at the beginning of the Civil War. During the war, the Mint is used as a Confederate treasury. When the war ends, the building once more becomes the property of the United States. Machinery and equipment are removed, and the building and grounds are occupied by a detachment of soldiers. In 1867, the building becomes a school for African Americans. Georgia must prove that the African Americans have a suitable alternative to the building for educational purposes before the building can be taken away from them. In order to achieve this end, Georgia congressman William Pierce Price donates land on Crane's Hill, east of Dahlonega, for an African American school, deeding the property to three African American men who serve as trustees. The Freedmen's Bureau erects a school on the site. Afterward, Price introduces a resolution that authorizes the secretary of the Treasury to convey the Mint property to the trustees of North Georgia Agricultural College, established on January 6, 1873. Sadly, fire destroys the old Mint building in December, 1878. A new building, Price Memorial Hall, stands on the original foundation, and serves as the administration building of North Georgia College.

Breymann Bros.
Tugboat owner and dredge contractor in Toledo, Ohio.

Breymann, George H.
Public works contractor of Breymann Bros., who serves on the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. In 1900, The Nugget reports that Breymann is the general manager of the company, and observes an industrious workplace with smoothly-running machinery. Land for Ashley School, almost four miles south of Dahlonega, is donated by Breymann and Frank W. Hall.

Bridgman, H. L.
Superintendent of the Sherman, Colorado-based Black Wonder Consolidated Mining Company prior to 1881. In 1881, it appears that William Sumner Hungerford replaces Bridgman as superintendent, because he crosses out Bridgman's name on the company letterhead.

Bright, J. D.
A witness to the sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867. The Bright family are Methodists.

Brittain, John C., ca. 1829-1917
Inferior Court judge who presides over the 1867 case Oats v. Early. Brittain fights in the Civil War and becomes the second husband of Martha A. Kennedy of Dahlonega. In 1887, Brittain resigns from the position of United States Commissioner in Lumpkin County. In addition to serving as a judge of the Inferior Court in Lumpkin County, Brittain serves as postmaster in Dahlonega from May 17, 1897 to April 12, 1901. He moves to Gainesville in his last years and dies at the age of eighty-eight.

Brown, James
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Burlingame, E. E.
Assayer in Denver, Colorado who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898. E. E. Burlingame's Assay Office and Chemical Laboratory is advertised in the 1890 Arizona Champion and in the Coconino Weekly Sun from 1891 to 1894. The laboratory conducts assays for mining companies worldwide.

C [return to top]

Calumet and Hecla Consolidated Copper Company
A Michigan mining company whose success is cited to promote investment in the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901. The peak operation of the Calumet and Hecla extends from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century. During the course of Calumet and Hecla operation, stockholders receive $160,000,000 in dividends and employment peaks at 11,000.

Cameron, George S.
President of the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company in 1867.

Cane Creek (Ga.)
Cane Creek runs through property of the Barlow Mining Company, and flows into the Chestatee River. A few miles north of Dahlonega on the grounds of Camp Glisson, Cane Creek produces a thirty-foot waterfall.

Cane Creek Mine, Lower (Ga.)
Part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898.

Cane Creek Mine, Upper(Ga.)
Part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898.

Carmichael, P. P.
Superintendent of mines for the Dahlonega Gold Mining & Milling Co. in 1911.

Carpe, James F.
Acting treasurer of the Dahlonega Mint, date unknown.

Cassity & Drach
Businessmen who acquire property from the Etowah Gold Mining Company and subsequently sell it to the Phoenix Gold Mining Company in 1892.

Chamberlain, A. M.
Officer of the Annie Gold Mining Company.

Chamberlain, W. H.
Officer of the Annie Gold Mining Company.

Charters, W. A.
Charters is Fred C. Exter's attorney in the Georgia Supreme Court case Exter v. Etowah Gold Mining Company. F. E. Dickie asks Wier Boyd, attorney for the Etowah Gold Mining Company, to confer with Charters to have the case continued until the next term of court. Active in community affairs, Charters serves on the first board of trustees of the public school. In 1898, Charters is solicitor general of Georgia and serves on the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company. A Mason, he is appointed on Memorial service at the Lodge of Sorrow of 1903 to commemorate the passing of members of the Blue Mountain Lodge.

Chattanooga (Tenn.)
In 1898, a branch office of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company is located in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Cheney, T. J.
President, treasurer, and member of the board of directors of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891.

Cherokee County (Ga.)
Cherokee County is an original county of Georgia formed from a Cherokee cession. Part of Cherokee County is used to form Lumpkin County in 1832. Some of the Lumpkin County land sold to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company in 1867 is part of what was once Cherokee County.

Chestatee River (Ga.)
The dividing line between the Fields Gold Mine and land sold by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867. The Chestatee is fed by the Yahoola River, Cane Creek and Etowah River.

Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company
Organized in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Chichester, Thomas W.
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Cincinnati Mining Company
A payment made to Wier Boyd for William Sumner Hungerford by the company indicates that the location of the mining office of the company in 1879 is Auraria. R. F. Williams may also be associated with the Cincinnati Mining Company, as he is sued jointly with Hungerford and the company by Nathan H. Hand in 1879. A letter from Hungerford to Boyd dated March, 1880 indicates that the Cincinnati Mine is no longer running and that R. F. Williams may have supervised the mining operation or worked it in partnership with Mr. Trimble, both of whom Hungerford considers to be deadbeats. Based on Hungerford's letters to Boyd, it is apparent that the Cincinnati company owns a mill, an engine, and a boiler. Hungerford is most likely the controlling or solitary stockholder, as profits from the sale of company property go to him after claims against the company are paid.

Cleveland (Ohio)
The Findley Gold Mining Company includes the results of a Cleveland, Ohio assay of samples from the top of the Great Sand Vein.

Clement, A.
Proprietor of the Quinnesec Hotel, from which William Sumner Hungerford writes several letters to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd.

Collins place
Land sold in 1867 to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, situated above the Bearden place on the Chestatee River.

Columbus (Ga.)
Letters from Amory Dexter to Wier Boyd indicate that Dexter resides mainly in Columbus, the location of his cotton warehouse, Alabama Warehouse. Columbus is one of the South's earliest and largest mill towns, powered by the Chattahoochee River. After the Civil War, the textile industry is one of the first to get back on its feet, and it flourishes in the 1870s.

Conner, William
Proprietor of the American House, a hotel in Lake City, Colorado in 1880. William Sumner Hungerford writes to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd from the American House.

Corey, Edwin F.
Commissioner for the State of Georgia who takes the acknowledgment of Deeds in the sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867. His name appears in the Maryland Manual of 1885.

Crandall-Brandt Printing Company
Publishes the Announcement of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898.

Crandall, W. R.
Assayer who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898.

Cravens, Thomas R.
Medical doctor in Chicago who serves on the board of directors of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901.

Crisson, William Reese, ca. 1815-1907
11th Georgia Infantry Battalion, State Guards, Company B. The Crisson Gold Mine, two miles north of Dahlonega, dates from 1847. Crisson publishes a pamphlet on mining in 1875, when the Findley vein is on his property. Manager of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878, Crisson has experience mining in both California and Georgia. Crisson, who lives in the Dahlonega area most of his life, is a member of the Dahlonega Presbyterian Church. Later, in 1897, he joins the Baptist Church, where he is the oldest male member. Crisson writes articles on mining and relates mining stories in interviews. In 1900, his son, E. E. Crisson, is elected an alderman of the newly incorporated Dahlonega. W. R. Crisson dies at the residence of his son, in the Yahoola District, in 1907 at the age of ninety-two.

D [return to top]

Dahlonega (Ga.)
Human habitation of the Dahlonega area may date to 1000 B. C. In 1828 at the beginning of the gold rush, the Cherokee Nation occupies over four million acres in north Georgia. Dahlonega is established as the seat of Lumpkin County near the Cane Creek Mines north of Auraria in 1833. Originally called Licklog, it is renamed for the Cherokee word meaning "yellow" or "golden." At the height of the gold rush in 1838, the Cherokees are rounded up and marched mercilessly to Oklahoma by United States soldiers during a harsh winter. Over 4,000 Cherokees lose their lives during the tragedy, known as the "Trail of Tears." Ironically, the easily-obtainable gold begins to diminish soon after the removal of the Cherokees. The U.S. Government opens a branch mint in Dahlonega in 1838, but the mint closes at the outbreak of the Civil War and never reopens. The California Gold Rush draws most of the miners west in 1849, but mining operations begin again in earnest after the Civil War, and continue until the early 1900s. Mining remains unprofitable until the 1930s, when it resumes in a limited fashion. However, the entry of the United States into World War II saps the gold mining industry of manpower and dynamite, virtually ending mining in Dahlonega. Today the economy of Dahlonega is driven by tourism. The dome of the Georgia State Capitol features sixty ounces of gold from Dahlonega.

Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company
The property consists of over 4,600 acres of land, six gold mills with a total of 110 stamps, a sawmill, a grist mill, a tannery, a chemical laboratory and assay office, six waterpowers, forty-five miles of ditch varying seasonally between 800 and 1,200 miner's inches of water, thirty dwellings, and machinery. The consolidated gold mines include the Hand Mine, the Yahoola Mine, the Findley Mine, the Lawrence Mine, the Upper Cane Creek Mine, the Lower Cane Creek Mine, the Barlow Mine, the Ralston Mine, the Gordon Mine, and the Ward Creek Mine. The company also owns iron ore property. In 1899, The Nugget credits the company for employing every industrious laborer, with or without a team. Capitalists and mining men from Illinois, Ohio, and North Carolina examine the ore beds and gather samples of ore to assay. The newspaper predicts a bright future for Lumpkin County mining when the company gets its chlorination plant finished, which should enable processing of low grade ore at a profit. On March 30, 1900, The Nugget reports a real estate boom, noting that members of the Consolidated and Standard Companies are optioning and buying all the mineral property in Lumpkin County, and securing all the business houses and dwellings on the town square and major streets. The newspaper reports on November 30, 1900 that Professor Yeates, the state geologist, describes the company as one of the largest gold mining plants in the United States, with the largest gold mill east of the Mississippi. The company's chlorination treatment plant can process forty tons of concentrates per day. In 1900, improvements at the mines total over $400,000. On December 14, 1900, The Nugget reports that the general manager, George H. Breymann, has given them a tour of the mill and works, including a 550-foot tunnel, which is being extended to hit a sixteen-foot vein. In spite of the early success of the mining operation, the Consolidated company begins to fail early in the 1900s and closes in 1906. The chlorination treatment proves more expensive than the company predicts, due to a faulty accounting practice, and the falling price of gold makes further mining unprofitable. Currently, the owners of the Consolidated Mine are restoring miles of underground tunnels, and conducting tours of the mine.

Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company. Board of Directors
In 1898, the board members are J. W. Adams, C. B. Paul, Frank G. Thompson, H. D. Ingersoll, F. R. Adams, George H. Breymann, R. C. Thompson, J. G. Rosenthal, and W. A. Charters.

Dahlonega Gold Mining Company
In 1867, the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company sells land to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company.

Dahlonega Gold Mining & Milling Co.
Corporation based in Auraria, Georgia with 710 acres of mining property.

Dahlonega Mint (see Branch Mint of the United States at Dahlonega, Georgia)

Daniels, Mr.
Amory Dexter asks Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd to tell his former business partner Peck that he should take inventory of the tools and equipment that Daniels is supposed to have brought from the mill to Dahlonega.

Davis, Benjamin
Official who stamps and records documents in the sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867.

Davis, Mr.
Auraria businessman who works with Christian Wahl.

Dawson County (Ga.)
Location of mining property owned by the Phoenix Gold Mining Company.

Deadwood-Terra Mines (S.D.)
Large-scale placer mining operation in South Dakota. The 1898 prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company describes operations and profits of the Deadwood-Terra Mines to illustrate the potential of gold mining. The Deadwood-Terra Mines are located in the Lead district, which is in central Lawrence County, in the central part of the mineralized area of the Black Hills. The famous Homestake mine is also in this district, and eventually assimilates the Deadwood-Terra.

Delano, Alonzo, 1806-1874
In 1870, Amory Dexter asks a man named Delano to endorse the position that Nathan H. Hand has sacrificed the interests of the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company by collusion with Frank W. Hall. Delano may be Alonzo Delano, who joins the California gold rush on the advise of his physician. Alonzo Delano later becomes a well-known pioneer humorist. Alonzo Delano is one of the earliest pioneers to use the Fandango Pass route to the gold mines in 1849. After prospecting, Delano settles in Grass Valley, California where he becomes a journalist. In 1854 he publishes Life on the Plains, and Among the Diggings.

Delaware Gazette
Local newspaper in Delaware County, Ohio. The editor in 1898 is Henry Clay Thomson, who is also the secretary and treasurer of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company. The Delaware Gazette has been owned by a single family longer than any other American daily newspaper. Founded as a weekly in 1818, it operates under several names including Olentangy Gazette, Ohio Gazette, and Delaware Gazette in its earliest years. Abram Thomson becomes co-owner in 1834, and buys out his partner in 1836. Abram turns control of the Gazette over to his son, Henry Clay Thomson, in 1897. Henry gives control to his son Walter Dunlap Thomson in 1926. "W. D.," as he is known, presides for forty-two years before transferring control to Henry Clay "Hank" Thomson II, in 1968. "Hank" Thomson serves as publisher until his death in 1994. He is succeeded by W. D. "Tom" Thomson II. On January 31, 2002, W. D. "Tom" Thomson II announces his retirement as president of the Delaware Gazette Corporation and turns over control of the newspaper to his two sons, H. C. "Chip" Thomson and Thomas "T" Thomson. The Delaware Gazette serves as Delaware County, Ohio's only daily newspaper.

Delaware (Ohio)
In 1898, most of the officers and board members of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company are businessmen in Delaware, Ohio, which may be Delaware Township, located in Delaware County. President Rutherford B. Hayes is born in Delaware County, Ohio, which is the location of Ohio Wesleyan University.

Denver (Colo.)
The 1898 prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company cites ore assays by the chemists Jones & Jones, and E. E. Burlingame, located in Denver. Denver is founded in 1858, and incorporated in 1861. It forms from three "tent towns," including one named Auraria, formed by the "Russell Boys" from Auraria, Georgia, in 1858. Denver is named for James Denver, the territorial governor of Kansas. In 1867, Denver is named the capital of the Colorado Territory. It becomes the state capital in 1876 when Colorado becomes a state.

Dexter, Amory, 1829-1887
Civil engineer, gold mining entrepreneur, and cotton factor with business interests in Dahlonega and Columbus, Georgia. Dexter comes to Dahlonega at the age of twenty-nine as a mining engineer and manager for the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company. The company president, John Blake, and several of the company's officers are relatives of Dexter. With Dr. M. H. Vandyke, the company's director, Dexter manages construction and monitors the initial operation of the Yahoola Canal, an aqueduct about twenty-five miles long, beginning at the headwaters of Yahoola Creek, over seven miles north of Dahlonega. Their system of trenches uses gravity to deliver water with enough force to wash down hillsides. Though he hails from Massachusetts, Dexter nevertheless remains in the South during the Civil War. He attempts to keep mining operations going, but by the summer of 1861, it is difficult for him to find laborers and money to pay them. In January 1862, he leaves Dahlonega to take a job as a clerk in Brunswick. After the war he sells his house in Dahlonega to Judge George D. Rice and moves to Columbus, where he becomes a cotton factor. Dexter spends much of his time traveling and living in Columbus, Georgia, the location of his cotton warehouse, known as Alabama Warehouse. He employs Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd to manage his gold mining affairs in Dahlonega. After Dexter's first wife, Catherine Baghott, dies in 1873, he marries Helen McDougald in 1875, and they have a daughter and three sons.

Dexter, Thomas Coffin Amory, 1817-1890
Cotton broker and officer in the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company. Cousin of Amory Dexter.

Dexter, Helen (McDougald), 1848-1908
Amory Dexter mentions his wife Helen occasionally in his letters to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd. Helen marries Amory in 1875. They have a daughter, Helen, and three sons: Charles Amory, McDougald, and Parkman. Helen's parents are Alexander McDougald and Francis L. Mitchell.

Dickie, F. E.
Secretary of the Phoenix Gold Mining Company and representative of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891, who corresponds with Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd regarding the defense in the Georgia Supreme Court case, Exter v. Etowah Gold Mining Company. Dickie argues that F. C. Exter, secretary and general manager of the Etowah Gold Mining Company, accepted stock in lieu of the monetary compensation he seeks.

Disney, Robert S.
Vice president and member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Gold Milling and Mining Company in 1901. Disney is a real estate broker in Chicago, Illinois.

Divelle, Lemuel
Founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Dortic, Germain T.
Founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Douglas Island (Alaska)
Location of the Alaska-Treadwell Mine. Douglas Island lies across the Gastineau Strait from Juneau. During the mining boom, the population on Douglas Island surpasses that of Juneau.

Drane, Frank P.
Assayer in charge of the United States Assay Office in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1913, when the Charlotte Branch Mint closes down. He is the last of the postwar assayers, serving from 1911 to 1913.

Ducket, Mr.
Amory Dexter advises Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd to ask Ducket to bring the timber cart back from the mill, since Ducket lives nearby. This is probably a reference to one of the sons of Hiram C. Duckett and Ruth Crumby. Their children are Joseph B., Sarah, Henry, James Madison, Jacob, Hannah, and Louise Catherine. James M. Duckett, who at the age of twenty-four is listed in the 1870 census as a miner, later serves as a justice of the peace.

E-F [return to top]

Early, John C.
Commissioned Sheriff of Lumpkin County in 1858, Early protects the town against a gang of thieves during the Civil War. Early is the defendant in a lawsuit by W. W. Oats to compel him to fix a building he rented to Oats for use as a mercantile establishment. Early appeals the Inferior Court decision against him.

East St. Louis (Ill.)
Location of the principal office of the Phoenix Gold Mining Company in 1891. The development of East St. Louis derives from river commerce, and the city grows during Reconstruction and westward expansion following the Civil War. East St. Louis expands from a small ferry crossing into one of the largest railroad terminals in the United States. Industrial power and importance as the central terminal for goods crossing the Mississippi form a vibrant commercial city. In 1917 a violent race riot in East St. Louis results in the death of at least thirty-nine African Americans and nine European Americans; hundreds of others are maimed by blue-collar European Americans in a section of the East St. Louis African American community. Over 6,000 African Americans are burned out of their homes and escape west to St. Louis. The shocking nature of the tragedy and coexistent racial tensions during World War I prompt public officials to conduct investigations into the disturbance and its causes, but records are classified by the United States government until 1986. After the 1917 riot, the creation of the Urban League gives African Americans a voice in community affairs. Race relations improve to the extent that when Waddell Brooks becomes the first African American to attend East Side High School in the 1940s, there is no riot. The population of East St. Louis peaks in the 1920s at around 75,000 and declines afterward. Today the population is less than 35,000.

Elzemeyer, J. H.
Member of the board of directors of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891.

Etowah Canal (Ga.)
Constructed at a cost of $30,000, the canal is around twenty miles long and lies about six miles from the Hand Canal. The 1898 prospectus for the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company suggests that the Etowah can be connected to the Hand at a cost of $6,000.

Etowah Gold Mining Company
In 1891, Fred C. Exter, secretary and general manager of the Etowah Gold Mining Company, sues the Etowah Gold Mining Company for monetary compensation. In preparation for trial before the Supreme Court of Georgia, F. E. Dickie asserts that Exter accepted a large amount of company stock in lieu of monetary compensation.

Etowah River (Ga.)
A principal stream in Dahlonega which flows into the Chestatee River. In his 1898 report on the hydraulic system of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company, G. F. Rendall evaluates the Etowah as a fine mill stream.

Exter, Fred C.
Secretary, general manager, and member of the board of directors of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891. He sues the Etowah Gold Mining Company for monetary compensation. F. E. Dickie asserts that Exter accepted a large amount of company stock in lieu of monetary compensation. Exter's name appears in an Arkansas Mining Claims book, showing that he owns three claims.

Exter & Cheney
Exter & Cheney acquire the deed to a property from Otto C. Scupin for the Etowah Mining Company.

Exter v. Etowah Gold Mining Company
Georgia Supreme Court Case filed in 1891, in which Exter, the secretary and general manager of the Etowah Gold Mining Company, seeks monetary compensation. The Etowah Gold Mining Company argues that Exter accepted a large amount of stock in lieu of monetary compensation.

Fields Gold Mine (Ga.)
Boling W. Fields and John D. Fields, Sr. are among the first prospectors in Lumpkin County. The Boling W. Fields vein in the Chestatee River is discovered in 1858. As E. E. Crisson later relates, the "Boley Fields" is only a top pocket of gold bearing ore extending from the bed of the Chestatee to the bank. Explosives are used to mine it. Fields is prevented from mining the entire site by legal action, according to Crisson. Before the pocket is exhausted, Fields manages to extract about 96,000 pennyweights of gold from it. Though John D. Fields, Jr. retains family land, most of the Fields move away from Auraria and Dahlonega by 1880. The Dahlonega Gold Mining Company sells land situated across from the Fields Gold Mine to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867. Boling Fields is buried in the family burial ground on the banks of the Chestatee.

Filer & Stowell
Milwaukee, Wisconsin company that makes a water pump used by the Findley Gold Mining Company. Mechanical engineer Joseph Philips, Jr. asserts that the pump is the only one of its kind. He describes the pump as a duplex water motor that operates from canal water under a head of 283 feet and lifts 176,000 cubic feet of water to a height of 435 feet daily. In the 1920s, Filer & Stowell manufactures fire hydrants for Milwaukee. Many of the company's patents from 1890-on describe sawmill machinery and components. The company is also famous for its steam engines. The Filer & Stowell engine at the Tokomaru Steam Engine Museum is the largest in New Zealand.

Findley Gold Mining Company
Before the Civil War, James Jefferson Findley is a lawyer in Dahlonega with mining interests. In 1857, a man named Duncan, hired by Findley, discovers what becomes known as the Findley Chute just over a mile southeast of Dahlonega. By 1878, the Findley Mining Company property consists of over 120 acres of mineral land on the eastern end of Findley Ridge. Waterpower is generated by the Yahoola River at the base of the ridge, where the company locates a twenty-four stamp quartz mill that can crush fifty tons of ore per day. Above the mining site, the company maintains a reservoir fed by a two-and-a-half mile system of ditches from the Yahoola Canal. Ores below the reservoir are mined or quarried and then sluiced to the mill with water from the reservoir. In 1898, the Findley Mine is part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company, which proposes to increase the number of stamps from forty to one-hundred.

Findley Gold Mining Company. Board of Directors
In 1878, the members of the board are D. A. Boody, James Francis, John McGinnis, Jr., Nathan H. Hand, and William Pierce Price.

Findley Mill
In 1898 the Findley Mill has forty stamps, twenty of which are new. They are driven by turbines powered by a seventeen-foot dam. There are three dwellings on the property and a blacksmith's shop. In 1938, Findley Mill is rebuilt.

Findley Mine (Ga.)
In 1898, the property of the Findley Mine is over 200 acres and power is supplied by the Yahoola River and a shunt canal from the Yahoola Canal. Mining engineer Joseph Philips, Jr. asserts, in 1898, that a water pump owned by the mine is the "only machine of its kind in existence." The mine also has a forty-stamp mill and two large shanties for the workmen.

Findley Ridge (Ga.)
Located near Dahlonega, Georgia, the ridge presents an almost sheer ascent of 500 feet above the Yahoola River. The ridge is seamed with exposed gold veins running northeast and southwest, dipping to the southeast. Findley Ridge is composed primarily of micaceous and talcous slates, hornblende, feldspar and quartz. The Findley Gold Mining Company works the ridge in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Foucher, Mr.
A reference to Foucher in an 1870 letter from Amory Dexter to Delano suggests that Foucher is a witness to collusion between Nathan H. Hand and Frank W. Hall, contrary to the interests of a company that may be the Yahoola and Cane Creek Hydraulic Company.

Francis, James
New York banker of Trask & Francis who serves on the board of directors and as treasurer of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878.

French, John R.
The treasurer of the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867 is John R. French. He acts as trustee of the stockholders in the purchase of land from the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company in 1867.

G [return to top]

Gainesville (Ga.)
The availability of supplies in Gainesville, south of Dahlonega, is cited by the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in its 1898 prospectus as one benefit of mining in the north Georgia area. Chartered in 1821 as the seat of government of Hall County, and first known as Mule Camp Springs, Gainesville begins as a collection of houses and stores at a juncture of trade trails dating back to the eighteenth century. The city is named for General Edmond Pendleton Gaines, who holds a command in Georgia defending against a Creek uprising during the War of 1812.

Gayden, Jasper
In 1869, Amzi Rudolph, acting as an agent for the Augusta and Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, claims the Right of Possession of a piece of property in Lumpkin County that Jasper Gayden refuses to vacate.

Georgia River Mining Company
Incorporated June 6, 1879, and capitalized at $2,500,000. Stephen Jennings is secretary in 1882, and Linnus Hull is president.

Goodrich, William Henry, 1823-1874
William H. Goodrich is listed as a founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. He may be William Henry Goodrich, who writes A Sermon Delivered at the Funeral of John Delamater in 1867. John Delamater is from Ohio, the origin of several investors in Georgia mining projects. William H. Goodrich may also be the W. H. Goodrich who, in 1869, builds Augusta's new city hospital.

Gordon, John Brown 1832-1904
General, Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. In 1870, Amory Dexter writes to Delano that he has forwarded Delano's evidence against Nathan H. Hand to General Gordon, and asks Delano to direct Colonel Prentiss(?) to file an additional charge against Hand based on the evidence. Dexter may be referring to Confederate General John B. Gordon, who before the war is a civilian coal mine developer in northwest Georgia. Gordon is born in Upson County, Georgia to Malinda Cox Gordon and the Reverend Zachariah H. Gordon. In 1852 Gordon graduates from Georgia State University and is admitted to the bar. He marries the sister-in-law of a partner in the firm where he studies law, Rebecca Haralson, daughter of General Hugh Anderson Haralson of LaGrange. He practices law in Atlanta without adequate success and becomes a journalist in Milledgeville. Soon he moves to Dade County to begin the Castle Rock Coal Company with his father. At the beginning of the Civil War, Gordon is elected captain of a group of mountain men and volunteers, known as the "Raccoon Roughs," who are eventually assigned to the Sixth Alabama Regiment. Gordon's education and intelligence enable him to rise quickly through the ranks, first to major and then to lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Alabama Infantry Regiment in December, 1861. His regiment is assigned to Rhodes' brigade of D. H. Hill's division, and Gordon is promoted to colonel on April 28, 1862. His bravery at Sharpsburg results in his promotion to brigadier-general on November 1, 1862. Gordon leads his brigade, composed of the Thirteenth, Twenty-sixth, Thirty-first, Thirty-eighth, Sixtieth, and Sixty-first Georgia Regiments, at Chancellorsville and in the Pennsylvania campaign. Attached to General Early's division, Gordon leads the advance to the Susquehanna at Wrightsville, the farthest point reached by the Confederates in Federal territory in the eastern states during the war. Returning from Wrightsville, he participates in the attack from the north at the battle of Gettysburg. At Spotsylvania, leading Early's division, Gordon leads a charge which drives the Federals back from the base of the "Bloody Angle." He is promoted to major-general a week later on May 14, 1864. After participating in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign, he is assigned to the command of the Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and later commissioned lieutenant-general. In March, 1865, commanding the remnants of Lee's army, he holds the last lines at Petersburg before the retreat to Appomattox, where he leads the last charge against the Federals. After the war, Gordon is elected to a term in the United States Senate in 1873. He is re-elected in 1879, but resigns after a year to accept a railroad contract, and helps build the Georgia Pacific Railroad. He is elected governor of Georgia in 1886 and re-elected in 1888. He is elected once more to the Senate in 1890. He serves as president of the United Confederate Veterans from 1890 until his death in Florida, where he has gone to improve his health.

Gordon Mine (Ga.)
Part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898, the Gordon Mine is a continuation of the Barlow belt.

Gower, Mr.
Dahlonega businessman mentioned by Amory Dexter in a letter to Wier Boyd. Dexter advises Boyd that he does not think Gower will buy the sawmill. Gower Springs, which may be named for him, is a resort in Gainesville.

Greenleaf, Ed E.
Renders an account in 1879 for the court case Hand v. Hungerford, et al.

Grisham, William
Clerk of the Dahlonega Mint from August 1844 to October 1849. His signature appears on Western and Atlantic Railroad change bills dated 1862.

H-I [return to top]

Habersham County (Ga.)
An original county of Georgia, Habersham is created in 1818 from Cherokee cessions. Part of Habersham County is used to create Lumpkin County in 1832. Habersham County is named for Major Joseph Habersham of Savannah, who serves as postmaster general in the cabinet of George Washington, and who is Speaker of the General Assembly of Georgia in 1785. Clarkesville is the county seat.

Hadlyme (Conn.)
William Sumner Hungerford writes several letters to Wier Boyd from Hadlyme, Connecticut.

Haile Gold Mine (S.C.)
Mine located in Lancaster, South Carolina, discovered in 1827 by Colonel Benjamin Haile (1768-1842), a South Carolina landowner. Successful gold panning on his 1,000-acre plantation leads Haile to investigate the source, talcous slate beds above the streams. In 1828, Haile sends a shipment of gold to the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia, which is the first South Carolina gold to leave the state. He sets up a five-stamp mill in 1837 to process ore and leases plots to neighboring planters, who work the plots using slave labor. Some of the gold nuggets found on the plots are valued between $300 and $500 when they are discovered. The mining operation becomes unprofitable after surface mines descend twenty-five feet. Haile's heirs lose equipment and control of the company during the Civil War. Afterward, James Ethridge, a New York hotelier, acquires the mine. When underground mining proves unsuccessful, the mining company hires Dr. Adolph Thies, a German metallurgist and experienced mining engineer. He develops the "Thies Barrel Chlorination Process" to extract gold from low-grade sulfite ore. During the 1890s the mine grows to sixty stamps, and includes a narrow gauge railroad. Thies retires in 1904, leaving two of his sons, Ernest and Dolph, to supervise the mine. Ernest and two others are killed in 1908 when a boiler explodes in the concentration room with a force that lifts the smokestack one-hundred feet in the air, and scatters parts of the building widely. The mine is closed in 1912, but is reopened to supply pyrite during World War I. Ironically, the World War II draft sounds the death knell for the mine, which loses its workforce.

Hall, Frank W., d. 1901
Corporal, Sixteenth Vermont Infantry, Company A. Originally from Vermont, Hall comes to Dahlonega after the Civil War, and becomes purportedly the richest man in Dahlonega. He serves in the Georgia legislature as mayor of Dahlonega, as a member of the board of trustees of North Georgia Agricultural College, and as one of the first public school board trustees, serving as president. In 1868 he is appointed postmaster of Dahlonega, and is reappointed in 1876. The village of Jay is created when Hall harnesses the Hightower River in the Davis district, and builds a sawmill, grist mill, tannery, store, and post office. Amory Dexter asserts in 1870 that Nathan H. Hand has colluded with Frank W. Hall contrary to the interests of the Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company. In 1881, Hall builds the Hall House, now known as Robert M. Moore Apartments, in Second Empire style, with a residence for his family and lodging for travelers. He also builds the Italianate style mercantile building known as Hall's Block, located on the town square. Another small building on the square, built in 1881, is used by Hall as an office. The jail that he builds around 1880 east of Dahlonega is still in use in 1930. Hall is the original owner of The Dahlonega Nugget, Dahlonega's only surviving newspaper, first published in 1890. In 1897, Hall is one of seventeen citizens of Dahlonega heavier than 200 pounds; he weighs 274. Hall purchases and repairs the Besser House in 1898. Hall is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and contributes to the construction of the new Presbyterian Church in 1899. He donates an elegant dwelling for the preachers at the Dahlonega Campground, a location for religious revivals. Hall also donates the land for Ashley School, over three miles south of Dahlonega. He dies at his home in Ingleside, Georgia from typhoid fever.

Hall, Mr.
William Sumner Hungerford refuses to pay lawyer's fees that Hall has added to his bill for repairing a mill. Mr. Hall may be Frank W. Hall, one of the wealthiest men in Dahlonega.

Hamilton, Benjamin
Founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Hand, Nathan H.
Hand, a capitalist from Cleveland, Ohio, provides money to improve the Yahoola Mine and Canal. After a fight with Yahoola Company stockholders, Hand buys, repairs and improves the Yahoola Canal, which is renamed the Hand Canal. He is a member of the board of directors and superintendent of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878. Hand buys the Barlow Mines prior to 1890, when he forms the Hand & Barlow United Gold Mines. He subsequently sells this company in 1892 as the Hand & Barlow United Gold Mines and Hydraulic Works of Georgia to Christian Wahl of Milwaukee. Hand is sued for $166,000, the ten-percent royalty due the heirs of the Barlow estate. Hand later becomes involved in the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company, which reacquires the United Gold Mines from Wahl. Active in local affairs, Hand serves on the board of trustees of the Dahlonega Presbyterian Church.

Hand & Company
William Sumner Hungerford refuses to pay a claim by the Hand Company against his company, possibly the Cincinnati Mining Company.

Hand & Yahoola Mill
Owned 1898 by the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company, which proposes to erect a new one-hundred-stamp mill.

Hand Canal (Ga.)
See Yahoola Canal.

Hand Gold Mining Company
The story of the Hand company begins with the formation of the Yahoola and Cane Creek Hydraulic Company by a group of investors in Boston in 1858. With a capital of one million dollars, the company constructs an aqueduct to the gold field, but the Civil War interferes with construction and mining operations. After the war, the Yahoola company repairs and completes the aqueduct, providing water to a portion of the company's property. The company then decides to replace the wooden trestle across the Yahoola River with iron tubes. The large sum of money needed for the project and for the erection of stamp mills is furnished by Nathan H. Hand, from Cleveland, Ohio. After the improvements are completed, a misunderstanding arises among the stockholders, resulting in a suspension of work and a court battle. Letters from Amory Dexter to Wier Boyd indicate that the stockholders claim collusion against company interests between Hand and Frank W. Hall, purported to be the richest man in Lumpkin County. The lawsuit is terminated when the United States marshal sells the property to Hand to pay debts owed by the Yahoola Company to Hall. The Georgia legislature grants Hand and his associates a new charter under the name Hand Gold Mining Company. The Yahoola Canal becomes known as the Hand Canal, and the company enlarges the Hand Canal to sell water to other mining companies.

Hand Mill
In 1898, the Hand Mill is a twenty-stamp mill that has run for about twenty years without interruption. It is driven by a turbine powered by the Yahoola Canal. A blacksmith's shop is attached to the mill, containing tools for repairs. There are also five dwellings on the property.

Hand Mine (Ga.)
Part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898.

Hand v. Hungerford et al.
In 1879, Nathan H. Hand sues William Sumner Hungerford, R. F. Williams and the Cincinnati Mining Company. Hungerford is forced to cover claims.

Hannay, Peter
Receives capital stock in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in exchange for land in 1867.

Harris
Amory Dexter suggests Harris as a prospective buyer for the timber carts he wishes to sell.

Hartford (Conn.)
Stock of the Georgia River Mining Company is issued in Hartford, Connecticut.

Head, James F.
Head joins with Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd in a lawsuit against J. B. Thomas, who owes them money.

Head, Mr.
Upon the discovery that deeds vesting property in Otto C. Scupin are not recorded in Lumpkin County, F. E. Dickie sends the deeds to Head for record.

Herron, James P.
Receives capital stock in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in exchange for land in 1867. This may be the James P. Herron who writes Soldier's Memento in 1861.

Hickman, H. H.
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Hollingshead, John S.
A notary public who resides in Washington, D.C., Hollingshead serves as Commissioner of Deeds for Georgia in and for the District of Columbia. He subscribes the 1867 sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company.

Homestake Mine (S.D.)
Large mining operation in South Dakota incorporated in 1887, with over 500 stamps in 1898. The Announcement of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company describes operations and profits at the Homestake Mines to illustrate the potential of large-scale gold mining. The 1901 prospectus of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company reports that returns on 1,000 shares of Homestake are $6,000. Through 1959, the Homestake Mining Company produces over 24,000,000 ounces of gold and 5,000,000 ounces of silver. About 1,500,000 ounces of gold and 300,000 ounces of silver are mined before 1904 by companies consolidated later with the Homestake. The original Homestake claim is only two fractional claims covering fourteen acres. These claims are purchased from prospectors who locate them in 1876 and mine about $5,000 in gold. The nearby Deadwood-Terra mine, organized in 1878, is one of several mines assimilated by Homestake. By 1931 the Homestake Company controls 654 mining claims covering 5,639 acres. From 1881 through 1894, average annual gold output is only around 55,000 ounces. In 1900, production begins to rise dramatically, reaching a quarter of a million ounces by 1910 and half a million by 1935. Production falls somewhat between 1942 and 1952, but remains above half a million ounces per year for the rest of the period from 1935 to 1959.

Howell, Mr.
Businessman in Dahlonega with a claim against William Sumner Hungerford and possibly the Cincinnati Mining Company.

Huff
Superintendent of the Hand Gold Mine in 1878, formerly superintendent of the Findley Gold Mining Company.

Huff, John, ca. 1832-1907
Lumpkin County judge who makes his living as a merchant and miner from a young age in Dahlonega. He lives in Lumpkin County all his life, except for a few years mining in California. He serves as the Lumpkin County Ordinary for four years. He attests to the worth of property owned by the Dahlonega Gold Mining & Milling Company in its 1902 prospectus. Glenn School is built on land donated by Huff.

Huff, Miller
Private, Fifty-second Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company D(?). In a letter dated November 12, 1862, Mathew F. Stephenson relates that Miller Huff has arrived back in town, having been a prisoner and paroled. This may be a reference to E. M. Huff who enlists as a private March 4, 1862 in the Fifty-second Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company D. However the date of his parole does not agree with the date of Stephenson's letter. Captured at Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 4, 1863, E. M. Huff is paroled there July 6, 1863. He takes an oath of allegiance to the U.S. Government and is released at Chattanooga, Tennessee, February 21, 1864.

Hull, Linnus
President of the Georgia River Mining Company in 1882.

Hungerford, William Sumner, 1854-1904
Born in East Haddam, Connecticut to William E. Hungerford and Ellen Frances Stunner, he is educated in the public schools of East Haddam, at Williston Seminary in Easthampton, Massachusetts, and at Yale College, from which he graduates in 1875. He also studies mining engineering at the Royal Saxon School in Freiberg, Saxony. After starting out in the gold mines of north Georgia, he works in the mines of the Lake Superior region in Michigan and in Colorado and New Mexico in 1880. During this period, Hungerford engages in regular correspondence with attorney Wier Boyd, who helps him manage his affairs as he travels through the western United States. Returning east, he becomes superintendent of mines for the Lowmoor Iron Company in Virginia. In 1889, Hungerford relocates to Jersey City, New Jersey, to become manager and partner in W. Ames & Company, manufacturers of bar iron, railroad spikes, bolts, nuts, and similar items. In a New Jersey publication in 1900, Hungerford is described as a Republican, a member of the Board of Council of Arlington, where he resides, and prominent and influential in the community. He is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the University Club, the First Congregational Church of Jersey City, and the Third Ward Republican Club of Kearny. Hungerford first marries Cora C. Paxton, of Lexington, Virginia. After her death, he marries Mary C. Bininger, of Arlington, New Jersey. Hungerford dies and is buried in Arlington, New Jersey.

Huntington, Samuel
A witness to the sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867.

Ingersoll, Herbert D., ca. 1840-1912
Sergeant, Fifty-ninth Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, Company D. Enlisted May 26, 1862 and mustered into Fourth Massachusetts Infantry, Company A, May 27, 1862. Mustered into Forty-seventh Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, Company F, October 9, 1862. Mustered out September 1, 1863. Mustered into Fifty-ninth Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, Company D, January 28, 1864. Wounded June 17, 1864, Petersburg, Virginia. Discharged for wounds, March 31, 1865, Boston, Massachusetts, as sergeant. Forty-seventh Infantry, Company F. Born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, he works as a clerk in Boston and enters the army at the age of twenty. Between enlistments, he works as a salesman in Gloucester. He may have been promoted to captain for bravery, though Massachusetts muster rolls do not confirm it. Around 1882, Ingersoll moves to White County to mine gold. He serves as the postmaster of Jay from 1882 to 1885. Later he moves to Dahlonega and mines with Nathan H. Hand, where he also serves as postmaster. Ingersoll is the general manager and a board member of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. In 1899, Ingersoll receives by express a gold headed cane from Major W. S. Bassinger of Athens, who had been a citizen of Dahlonega and president of North Georgia College. Ingersoll's name and Bassinger's initials are engraved on the cane. After the incorporation of Dahlonega as a city in 1899, Ingersoll serves as an alderman in 1900. He dies on August 23, 1912, following the death of his wife. They are both buried in Gloucester.

J-K [return to top]

James, Charles A.
Secretary of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878.

Jay (Ga.)
Captain Frank W. Hall harnesses the Hightower River in the Davis District, seven miles northwest of Dahlonega, builds a sawmill and grist mill, and christens the location "Jay." He operates a tannery, store, and United States Post Office. Cottages are erected and soon occupied. Herbert D. Ingersoll serves as the postmaster of Jay from 1882 to 1885. In 1889, Jay requests a charter to organize a municipal government with Colonel J. B. Thomas as mayor. The road from Jay is narrow and rough, but leather, shingles, and lumber are shipped out of Jay and business is lively. However, Jay fails to rival Dahlonega as it boasts it will. The location of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company sawmill, grist mill, tannery, and five houses, the village of Jay is still connected to Dahlonega by daily mail in 1898. Now sparsely populated, the area is marked by Jay Bridge, which crosses over the Etowah River, and Jay Bridge Road.

Jennings, Stephen
Secretary of the Georgia River Mining Company in 1882.

Jervis, R. B., Administration
Deposits gold at the United States Branch Mint at Dahlonega, Georgia.

Jones & Jones
Chemists in Denver, Colorado, who evaluate Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898.

Justice's court
Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd and James F. Head bring a lawsuit against J. B. Thomas to collect his debt. Thomas receives a summons to appear in Justice's court. The justice of the peace presides over a variety of hearings, including misdemeanors, civil suits, small claims, and landlord/tenant disputes.

Kansas City (Mo.)
Willard I. Rush, a member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Gold Milling and Mining Company in 1901, is a miner and capitalist in Kansas City, Missouri. By 1880, Kansas City has a population over 60,000. In 1899, a convention center is built, but it burns to the ground the following year three months before the Democratic National Convention can take place. The city rebuilds the center with donations just in time for the convention.

Kelly, James, ca. 1814-1886
Kelly marries Emily Watkins in South Carolina before moving to Lumpkin County, Georgia. Emily bears him twelve children: William Henry, Elias J., Rosanna N., Jasper J., James E., Ewell S., Polly Ann, Philemon, Peggy Margaret, Avey Evaline, Martin, and George H. On August 22, 1833, Kelly is a member of Petit Jury No. 2 at the first session of court at the Lumpkin County Courthouse in Dahlonega. A Presbyterian, he helps maintain the first Sunday school, established in Dahlonega in the old academy in 1838. The school is under the auspices of the Presbyterians, but is known as the Union Sunday School. A handwritten record of proceedings in the case Oats v. Early indicates that Kelly may be the County clerk in 1867.

Kilgo, Thomas H.
In 1868, Amory Dexter owes money to a man named Kilgo. This may be Thomas H. Kilgo, who runs for clerk of Dahlonega in 1851. Kilgo is appointed postmaster at Dahlonega in 1869. Dexter urges attorney Wier Boyd to help Kilgo collect payment from F. M. Williams, a man who owes money to Dexter. Dexter later asks Boyd if Kilgo's levy on the mill has been removed. Kilgo owns the first glass lamp ever brought to Dahlonega, and later sells it to F. D. Boatfield.

King
In a letter to Wier Boyd in 1867, Amory Dexter remarks that King has been replaced as treasurer of the Yahoola and Cane Creek Hydraulic Company by Nathan H. Hand. Dexter's reference may be to R. B. King, who, in 1880, leases the Findley property and soon locates the lost Findley Chute. Just before his yearís lease expires, he loses the Chute intentionally. In only a year, King reportedly makes enough from the Findley Vein to start a bank in Denver, Colorado.

Knight, J. F.
A witness to the 1867 sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company.

L[return to top]

Lake City (Colo.)
William Sumner Hungerford sends and receives mail from Lake City while working mines in Colorado. Hungerford describes Lake City as a town of 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants sixteen miles from his residence in Sherman, Colorado. He asks Wier Boyd to make a money order payable at Lake City, because there is no money order office in Sherman. Lake City is best known as a silver mining camp. Located on the eastern side of the San Juan mountain range, Lake City is the county seat of sparsely populated Hinsdale County. Prospecting begins in 1871, and in 1874, Enos Hotchkiss, part of a road building party, discovers gold in nearby hills. In spite of the fact that the first train track to Lake City is not laid until 1889, many people arrive and start businesses and churches during the 1880s, including two banks, two breweries, seven saloons, and the first church and newspaper on Colorado's Western Slope. Mining remains a successful enterprise until the price of silver plummets. The present economy of Lake City profits from tourism.

Lancaster County (S.C.)
The Haile Gold Mine, managed by Captain A. Thies, is located in Lancaster County. Gold mining begins in Lancaster in the 1820s. Primarily agricultural, Lancaster becomes a center for textile manufacturing following the Civil War.

Lawrence Mill
Located in Dahlonega, this ten-stamp mill is powered by a twenty-six-foot overshot wheel fed by a branch of the Yahoola Canal in 1898. A house is attached to the mill.

Lawrence Mine (Ga.)
Part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898, the mine lies in the center of Dahlonega. Its ten-stamp mill is driven by water from the Hand Canal.

Lemley, William
Possibly a clerk at the Dahlonega Mining & Milling Co. in 1911.

Liverpool (England)
Mining engineer G. F. Rendall, who writes a report on the hydraulic system of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898, resides in Liverpool.

Lockhart Mill
Located less than a mile from the Boyd property of the Findley Mine.

Lockhart Mine (Ga.)
Operates perhaps from 1924 to 1941.

Lumpkin County (Ga.)
The location of mining property owned by the Phoenix Gold Mining Company. Also the location of land owned by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, sold to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in 1867. Lumpkin County is formed in 1832 from Cherokee, Habersham, and Hall counties. Lumpkin County is named for Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin, who also serves Georgia in the United States Congress and Senate. The county seat of Lumpkin is Dahlonega.

Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company
Chartered in 1867 by the Georgia legislature, the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company is initially capitalized at $1,000,000, and increases capitalization to $1,200,000. The company acquires land from the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company in 1867. On February 5, 1868, the stockholders meet at the company office in Washington, D.C. to choose the board of directors.

M [return to top]

Manzano (N.M.)
William Sumner Hungerford writes to Wier Boyd from Manzano while he is prospecting in Socorro, New Mexico. Manzano is in Torrance County in central New Mexico. Settlement dates from 1829.

Mary Henry Mill
In 1898, a dam at the Mary Henry Mill provides some power to the Yahoola mining operation.

Mary Henry Mining Company
In 1898, owns a dam on the Yahoola River.

Matthews, A. E.
Deposits gold at the Branch Mint of the United States at Dahlonega in 1846. This may be the artist Alfred Edward Mathews (1831-1874) who is famous for his drawings of Civil War battles and Western scenes. In 1868, he issues a lithograph of Virginia City, Montana, a gold mining town.

McCay, Charles F.
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. This may be Professor Charles F. McCay who teaches civil engineering and mathematics at the University of Georgia from 1833 to 1853 before leaving Athens to become the president of the University of South Carolina. He later establishes a successful insurance agency in Augusta, and moves to Baltimore where he remains.

McDonald, J. R.
Associated with Lockhart Mine in the 1930s.

McGinnis Bros. & Fearing
A bank in New York.

McGinnis, John, Jr.
New York banker of McGinnis Bros. & Fearing who serves on the board of directors of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878.

Mercur Gold Mine (Utah)
Large-scale mining operation in Mercur, Utah. The 1898 prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company describes operations and profits of the Mercur Gold Mine to illustrate the potential of gold mining. The Mercur Gold Mining and Milling Company is formed around 1890. The company builds a mill near a stream, but does not profit until William Orr returns from Australia and introduces the cyanide extraction process invented by McArthur and Forrest. G. S. Peyton, an owner of Mercur, sends a railcar of ore to an extraction plant in Denver, which confirms that there is enough gold in the samples to justify construction of a cyanide extraction plant, the first built and operated in the United States. The plant is enlarged three times to handle greater amounts of ore.

Mercur (Utah)
Location of the Mercur Gold Mine, a large-scale mining operation. Mercur is first settled in 1870 when gold is found at the head of Lewiston Canyon.

Miller, Joel T.
Merchant in Auraria who is elected a school trustee of Auraria in 1884. Later he serves on the Lumpkin County board of education in 1898. He is a member of the Dahlonega school board in 1902. In addition to supporting public education, he becomes general manager and a member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901.

Milwaukee (Wis.)
Two assayers who evaluate ore of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company, Arthur Weld and A. S. Mitchell, are from Milwaukee. In addition, a pump used at the Findley Mine, part of the consolidation, is made by Filer & Stowell of Milwaukee.

Mitchell, A. S.
Assayer from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898.

Moore, Frank
Moore's father works the Lawrence Mine. A resident of Dahlonega, Moore is a founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. In 1888, Moore stops a brawl in his store, Moore and Williams, when a showcase is threatened. Frank Moore is a member of the group that appeals to the Georgia General Assembly to charter a school in 1895. He is a member of the board of trustees for the Dahlonega Graded School.

Moore, Henry W.
When the Harrison Riley Hotel in Dahlonega burns down, Moore builds a hardware store on the site.

Moore, J. F., & Company
Deposits gold at the United States Assay Office in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1905. The J. F. Moore building is constructed ca. 1846 and is once connected to Hall's Villa by a bridge constructed across the street. J. F. Moore helps establish the Dahlonega Campground in 1891. He is a member of the first board of trustees to organize the public school in Dahlonega.

Morley, J. H.
Tendered as security by John C. Early on the appeal of Oats v. Early, 1867.

Moore, McDuffie R., 1833-1907
Second lieutenant, Fifty-second Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company D, March 4, 1862. Elected first lieutenant August 20, 1862. Resigned, disability, March 13, 1863. Born in South Carolina, Moore dies in Lumpkin County, Georgia. In 1869, Moore witnesses a legal statement by Amzi Rudolph, agent of the Augusta & Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, that Jasper Gayden refuses to abandon property owned by the company.

Mountain Signal
Dahlonega newspaper, published in the Masonic Lodge Hall constructed in 1857 and destroyed in 1957.

Murphy, John A.
Attorney for W. W. Oats in the case Oats v. Early, 1867.

Murray County (Ga.)
Amory Dexter asks Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd to return land in Murray County to pay taxes. Located in northwest Georgia, Murray County borders on Tennessee.

N-O[return to top]

New Chum Consolidated Mine (Vic.)
Large-scale mining operation in the Corryong area of Victoria, Australia. The prospectus of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company describes operations and profits of the New Chum Mine to illustrate the potential of gold mining. Around 1898, the mine has over 500 stamps. Part of the Mt. Elliott reefs, the mine is discovered in 1894. In 1899, the Australian Mining Standard acknowledges that the New Chum is a 'really good mine.' By the end of 1898, the New Chum yields 3,593 ounces of gold from 590 tons of ore. In spite of its early success, production ends by 1903.

New York (bank)
F. E. Dickie draws on a New York bank for the Etowah Gold Mining Company to pay Wier Boyd and his son M. G. Boyd for services rendered for the defense in the Georgia Supreme Court case Exter v. Etowah Gold Mining Company. Additionally, William Sumner Hungerford requests that money payable to him be sent by New York draft.

New York Mining Stock Exchange
In its 1878 prospectus, the Findley Gold Mining Company claims to have been the first to apply to have its stock listed under the newly adopted stringent rules of the New York Mining Stock Exchange. The Exchange selects J. C. Randolph, mining engineer and geologist, to examine and report on the property of the Findley Gold Mining Company.

Norfolk, Edward F.
Landowner from New Hampshire who receives capital stock in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in exchange for land in 1867.

North Georgia College and State University (Ga.)
After the Civil War, mineral exploration is concentrated in the West, and the U.S. Mint at Dahlonega is abandoned. North Georgia Agricultural College is established on January 6, 1873, as a coeducational land grant school of agriculture and mechanical arts, particularly mining engineering. The old Mint building becomes the main building on campus. David W. Lewis serves as president until 1885. There are 177 registered students the first year, including seventy women. During the first year, the students request that military training be part of the curriculum, which begins the Corps of Cadets. The college is the first state-supported college in Georgia to grant a degree to a woman, Willie Lewis, with the first graduating class in 1878. However, the controversy surrounding the event prevents her from participating in the commencement ceremony. In December 1878, fire destroys the old Mint building. A new building is constructed on the same foundation and named Price Memorial Hall for William Pierce Price, the Georgia congressman who introduces a resolution in Congress authorizing the secretary of the Treasury to convey the Mint property to the trustees of North Georgia Agricultural College. In 1929, the school is renamed North Georgia College because the role of state agricultural college has been assumed by the University of Georgia. In 1942, following the entrance of the United States into World War II, the "Hell's Angels" squadron is formed by a group of twenty-three North Georgia College cadets who pass the Naval Aviation tests in Atlanta. It is the only aviation squadron totally manned by students from a single school. Women are accepted into the military program beginning in 1974.

Norway (Mich.)
A railroad station on William Sumner Hungerford's trip to Quinnesec, Michigan in 1880. George and James O'Callaghan build a sawmill on the site in 1878. The village is designed by Anton Odell, a Norwegian, in 1879. A post office called Ingolsdorf is given to the village in September, 1879, but by December, the post office name is changed to Norway. The settlement becomes incorporated in 1891.

Oats, John
Father of W. W. Oats. He guarantees payment for his son on the rent of a mercantile building from the Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company in 1867.

Oats v. Early
In 1867, W. W. Oats rents a building in Dahlonega from the Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company for mercantile purposes with the understanding that the company agent, John C. Early, will improve the property. Soon after, Oats sues Early for breach of contract. John A. Murphy serves as attorney for Oats, while Wier Boyd serves as attorney for the Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company. When Chief Justice John C. Brittain awards Oats monetary damages and orders Early to repair the property, Early appeals the decision.

Oats, W. W.
Oats rents a building in Dahlonega from the Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company for mercantile purposes with the understanding that the company will improve the property. He sues the company in 1867 for breach of contract. When Oats wins, the Augusta & Dahlonega Mining Company appeals the decision.

Oates, Mr.
Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd completes a trade with Oates and rents to him for the 1868 season. Oates may be W. W. Oats or his son John. If so, the "trade" may represent an out-of-court settlement of the appealed 1867 case Oats v. Early.

Ohio Wesleyan University
F. R. Adams of Delaware, Ohio, a professor at Ohio Wesleyan University, is a member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. Founded by Methodists in 1842, Ohio Wesleyan maintains an active affiliation with The United Methodist Church but welcomes students of all religious faiths. The College coordinates an active program of social action and community service.

O'Kane Property
Location of the Lockhart Mine. In the late 1930s, Cornelius O'Kane builds a new mill on the Findley property beside Yahoola Creek. O'Kane owns both the Findley and Lockhart mines. In 1940 the new Findley mill begins operation, but in only a few years the mill is shut down due to World War II, which cuts off the supply of labor and dynamite.

P-Q [return to top]

Parker, John A.
Captain, Fifty-second Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company D. Captain, March 4, 1862. Resigned, disability August 20, 1862. Born in Macon County, North Carolina, Parker is a Civil War recruiter in 1861. He owns a store on the Square in Dahlonega from 1858 to 1888. In a letter dated 1868, Amory Dexter alerts Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that the spring wagon he had at John Parker's never belonged to the Yahoola Company, and that he has given it to Peck. Once a large property owner and popular resident of Dahlonega, Parker loses much through speculation. His health failing, Parker and his wife move to Indian Territory in 1890 to join the rest of their family on the frontier. Parker's store later becomes known as Nix Grocery from 1936 to 1983, owned by Nelson A. Nix until his death, when it becomes the Appalachian Outfitters Trading Co. The store is the oldest surviving commercial building on the Square.

Parker, Mr.
Bondsman in 1892 for F. C. Exter in the Georgia Supreme Court case Exter v. Etowah Gold Mining Company. F. E. Dickie suggests to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that he ask Parker to serve as bondsman for the Etowah Gold Mining Company as well. Mr. Parker is probably not Captain John A. Parker who leaves Dahlonega in 1890, his health failing from financial ruin.

Patton, Julius M.
Superintendent of the United States Branch Mint at Dahlonega, Georgia, from July 1853 to October 1860. A lawyer and former state treasurer, Patton is appointed by newly elected Democrat President Franklin Pierce in 1853. The Philadelphia Mint directs Patton to reduce the five-percent silver content of the Dahlonega coins, which typically have a greenish-gold color. Coins minted in 1854 have a more yellow tint as a result. The following year, the Dahlonega Mint produces its only three-dollar gold coins. Declining gold deposits during the 1850s threaten the viability of the Mint. Patton is replaced in 1860 by George Kellogg.

Paul, C. B.
Vice president and member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. Born in 1832 in Washington County, Pennsylvania, Paul moves to Delaware County, Ohio with his parents. He engages in farming in Harlem Township until 1861, when he moves to Delaware Township, where he remains. In 1862, he is elected treasurer of Delaware County by the Republican party, and serves until 1866. He also serves as County Commissioner for six years. In 1864, Paul becomes a stockholder in the First National Bank of Delaware. He becomes vice president in 1875, and president in 1880, on the retirement of Benjamin Powers. Paul also deals in wool following the Civil War.

Paulding County (Ga.)
J. B. Thomas, responding to a lawsuit by Wier Boyd and James F. Head, writes from Paulding County in 1879 to assure them that he will be able to repay his debt to them soon. Paulding County is named for John Paulding, one of the men who apprehends the British spy Major Andre, an accomplice of Benedict Arnold. One of the most remote counties in north Georgia, Paulding is claimed by both the Creeks and the Cherokees until they are removed by the United States. The land is distributed in the Lottery of 1832, when Paulding is also recognized as a county. The economy before and following the Civil War is largely based on cotton. The Farmer's Alliance, a political movement to empower farmers, gains popularity in Paulding in the late nineteenth century.

Payne House
A property on East Main Street in Dahlonega, built in 1860. In response to an inquiry by Mr. Wooten, Amory Dexter claims he does not own the house, but rents it from his cousin. Jeremiah Payne, a gold miner, is the original owner.

Peck
Erstwhile business partner of Amory Dexter in a mining concern, possibly the Rider Mine. When mining operations cease, Peck and Dexter divide and liquidate the company assets with the assistance of Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd. Boyd acts as a liaison between the two, apparently at the wish of Dexter, who nevertheless desires to maintain a professional relationship with Peck. In one letter to Wier Boyd, Dexter refers to Peck as "Colonel."

Philadelphia Mint (Pa.)
The Findley Gold Mining Company sends samples from the Great Sand Vein on Findley Ridge to be assayed by Booth & Garret at the Philadelphia Mint. In 1853, the Philadelphia Mint directs the Dahlonega Mint to reduce its percentage of silver in gold coins from five-percent to less than one-percent. A facility of the United States Mint, the Philadelphia Mint engraves U.S. coins and medals and produces medal and coin dies, coins of all denominations for general circulation, regular uncirculated coin sets, commemorative coins authorized by Congress, and medals. The Mint also conducts public tours and maintains the facility's sales center.

Philips, Joseph, Jr.
Dahlonega assayer and mining engineer who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898. His report on property owned by the company is presented in its prospectus.

Phillipson, R. H.
Owner of a copy of the Announcement of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company. His name on the title page is crossed out and "Mrs. J. D. Anthony, Dahlonega, Ga." is written underneath.

Phoenix Gold Mining Company
Illinois mining company with mining property in Lumpkin and Dawson counties, Georgia. F. E. Dickie is associated with both this company and the Etowah Gold Mining Company.

Phoenix Gold Mining Company. Board of Directors
At the first regular meeting of the board in 1892, the directors call for the eviction of Otto C. Scupin from a house owned by the company. Scupin, a stockholder, occupies the house rent-free, and threatens the company with legal action to maintain his residence.

Piedmont Mill
Located in Gwinnett County, Georgia.

Piedmont Mine (Ga.)
Located in Gwinnett County, Georgia.

Pigeon Roost Mine (Ga.)
Water for this operation, one of the first mines in Lumpkin County, comes from the Yahoola Canal. The first bank established in Lumpkin County is operated in Auraria by the Pigeon Roost Mining Company, primarily for the safekeeping of company funds. The mine is named for a nearby passenger pigeon roost. During the first half of the 1800s, throngs of passenger pigeons exist, amounting to around a third of all birds in the United States at the time, and representing the same number of all birds that exist in the United States today. They roost in such large numbers that they often stand on top of one another, and their dung beneath a roost accumulates to four inches. Wherever they roost, the boughs are stripped from the trees and large limbs are frequently broken off by their weight. The passenger pigeon has few predators other than man but produces only a single offspring each year. Remarkably, utilizing a Native American technique of netting an entire tree, European Americans hunt the passenger pigeon to extinction by 1914.

Polk County (Ga.)
The location of the post office where the Annie Gold Mining Company, operated by J. B. Thomas in 1879, receives mail. Polk County is formed in 1851 by an act of the Georgia legislature from land taken from western Paulding County. It is named for James Knox Polk, the eleventh president of the United States. Cedartown is the county seat.

Pope, D. K.
Assayer in charge of the United States Assay Office in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1905.

Pratt, Nathaniel Alpheus, 1834-1906
Assayer from Atlanta, Georgia, who evaluates ore from the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company around 1898. Born in Darien, Georgia, Pratt attends school at Roswell and graduates from Oglethorpe University in 1852. He graduates from Savannah Medical College in 1856 with the degree of M.D. Rather than practice as a physician, Pratt pursues chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University. Pratt marries Julia Eliza Stubbs in 1855. From 1858 to 1861, he works as a professor of chemistry at Savannah Medical College. Just as the Civil War begins, Pratt is installed as a professor of geology and chemistry at Oglethorpe University. However, it is not long before Pratt organizes a company, the "Jordan Grays," in November, 1861. He serves as captain until assigned to the Confederate States Nitre and Mining Bureau with the commission of assistant chief, and the rank of lieutenant-colonel of Cavalry. After the war, Pratt moves to Charleston, South Carolina to construct a chemical factory to produce fertilizer from locally available phosphate of lime. In 1867 he organizes the Charleston Mining and Manufacturing Company, backed chiefly by Philadelphian George T. Lewis. In 1868 he organizes the Etiwan Phosphate Company and erects the largest sulfuric acid works in the United States. In 1870 he is elected professor of applied science at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia, but he first visits chemical manufacturers in Europe. Pratt accepts the chair of applied science at Lexington from 1872 to 1876, when he resigns to continue development of native resources. In 1879 he opens in Atlanta the Georgia Geological, Chemical, and Mining Bureau and serves as state chemist from 1879 to 1880. In 1881 he organizes the Georgia Chemical and Mining Company with capital from Cincinnati. Pratt engineers and constructs the Nashville Fertilizer Company at Nashville, Tennessee in 1882. He organizes the Furman Farm and Improvement Company in 1883 with H. H. Colquitt and others. From 1885 to 1889 Pratt serves as geologist to the Department of Agriculture of Georgia. From 1889 to 1895, he locates and develops phosphates in Florida, where he establishes the Florida Geological, Chemical and Mining Bureau with two of his sons. In 1895 he returns to Georgia, living in Lithia Springs until 1900, when he moves to Decatur. He is killed by a fast train on the Georgia Railroad.

Prentiss(?), Colonel
One of the participants in a stockholder dispute against Nathan H. Hand for colluding with Frank W. Hall contrary to company interests.

Press Standard Printing Company
Kansas City, Missouri company that prints the Prospectus of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901.

Price, William Pierce, 1835-1908
The son of Dahlonega's first marshal, William Pierce Price, Sr., Price begins attending the Union Sunday School in 1840 at the age of five. Apprenticed to a printer in 1845, he is still a printer's boy in 1849 when Dr. Mathew F. Stephenson makes his famous speech on the steps of the Lumpkin County Courthouse, exhorting miners to stay in Georgia. Price moves to Greenville, South Carolina in 1851, where he attends Furman University. Before graduating, he leaves to take charge of the editorial department of the Southern Enterprise, a Greenville newspaper. Price studies law and is admitted to the bar in 1856. He commences practice in Greenville. At the beginning of the Civil War, Price speaks to a large audience in the Dahlonega courthouse, resulting in an abundance of Confederate volunteers. During the Civil War, Price serves in the Confederate Army as orderly sergeant in Kershaw's Second South Carolina Regiment. He is wounded at Lewisville, Virginia in 1861. Price is elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1864 to 1866, after which he moves back to Dahlonega, where he speaks in honor of the Civil War dead at a memorial service. He serves as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1868 to 1870 and is then elected as a Democrat to the Forty-first Congress to fill the vacancy caused by failure to elect. He is reelected to the Forty-second Congress and serves from December 22, 1870, to March 3, 1873. He is not a candidate for renomination in 1872. Later, he serves again as a member of the George House of Representatives from 1877 to 1879, as a member of the Georgia Senate in 1880 and 1881, and once again as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives in 1894 and 1895. Price is a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1880. While in Congress, he facilitates the donation of the defunct Dahlonega Mint building to the State of Georgia for educational purposes. The result is the founding of North Georgia College. Upon his return from Congress to Dahlonega in 1873, Price is honored with a torchlight procession. He serves as president of the North Georgia College board of education for thirty years. The Price Debating Society is formed at North Georgia College in February 1873. Price donates $4,200 to North Georgia College for investment in Georgia 8 percent bonds, the interest of which is to be used in paying the faculty. Price's house is destroyed by fire in 1874. After fire destroys the old Mint in 1878, Price takes a prominent role in the meeting to reconstruct the college. He is a member of the board of directors and vice president of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878. Also in 1878, Price forms a law partnership with R. H. Baker. In 1890, compelled to protect his large interest in the Gainesville and Dahlonega Railroad, Price buys the railroad at auction in Gainesville for $4,000. Price writes much about Dahlonega's history, including the history of the militia district, Confederate soldiers, mining, and Native American Baptist preachers. Price is the chairman of the building committee for the new Baptist church in 1897. The new church costs $4,200, of which Price contributes $1,000 and secures much of the rest. At his suggestion, the baptistery under the church is lined with copper made from old stills donated to the church by former illicit distillers. Before becoming a Baptist, Price is a member of the Presbyterian Church and serves on its board of trustees. In 1897, Price is one of seventeen Dahlonega residents weighing over 200 pounds; he reportedly weighs 250. As a member of the County board of education, Price tours Lumpkin County in 1898, speaking about the new plan for public school improvements and inviting the cooperation of citizens and patrons of schools. Later he publishes news reports of improvements. When President McKinley visits Atlanta, Georgia in 1898, Price presents him with a gold nugget symbolizing friendship and genuine hospitality. When Dahlonega is incorporated as a city, Price becomes Dahlonega's first mayor in 1900. At Price's suggestion, the Gus Boyd Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy, organized in 1905, is named for Captain Augustus Boyd, a Dahlonega native killed while rallying his troops during the Civil War battle of Baker's Creek, Mississippi. Price lays out a city subdivision in east Dahlonega and names it Mechanicsville in commemoration of the Civil War battle of Mechanicsville, Virginia in 1862. On the occasion of Price's death, North Georgia College and the public school are closed until he is laid to rest. Court is also suspended for memorial services. Price is buried with Masonic honors.

Quincy Mining Company
A mining company mentioned in the 1901 Prospectus of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company to show the rewards possible from investment in mining company stock. Founded in 1846, the company mines native copper deposits near Hancock, Michigan.

Quinnesec Hotel
William Sumner Hungerford writes several letters to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd from the Quinnesec Hotel, located in Quinnesec, Michigan.

Quinnesec (Mich.)
William Sumner Hungerford writes several letters from Quinnesec to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd regarding the dissolution of his company and the collection and payment of debts by various parties. Hungerford may be prospecting in Quinnesec, as it is the location of the Quinnesec Mine, discovered and developed by John L. Bell in 1871. Like Hungerford's previous stop, Norway, Michigan, Quinnesec is a station of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. The name Quinnesec is derived from a Native American word for smoky waters, alluding to the mist hanging over nearby Menominee River.

R [return to top]

Ralston Mill
Almost two miles south of the Barlow Mill is the Ralston. In 1898, it is a ten-stamp mill run by a three-foot hurdy-gurdy wheel fed from a pipe leading from the Yahoola Canal. There are five houses on the property.

Ralston Mine (Ga.)
Part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898, the Ralston adjoins the Barlow Mine on the south. The mine is located in Dawsonville in Lumpkin County. One of the first settlers, Lewis Ralston has a "licklog" for livestock where the Lumpkin County Courthouse now stands. The original name for Dahlonega is Licklog.

Randolph, John C.
Mining engineer and geologist selected by the New York Mining Stock Exchange to examine and report on the property owned by the Findley Gold Mining Company.

Rendall, G. F.
Mining engineer from Liverpool, England, who reports on the hydraulic system of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in its 1898 prospectus.

Rice, John Hovey, 1816-1911
Landowner from Maine who receives at least 119 shares of capital stock in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in exchange for land in 1867. Born in Mount Vernon, Maine, Rice attends the common schools. From 1831 to 1841, he works as a clerk in the office of the register of deeds in Augusta, Maine. A versatile man, Rice engages in the mercantile business and serves as deputy sheriff. During the 1838 northeastern boundary dispute with Great Britain, called the Aroostook War, Rice serves as aide-de-camp to General Bachelor. In 1843, Rice moves to Piscataquis County, Maine, where he studies law, is admitted to the bar, and commences practice in 1848. He serves as the prosecuting attorney for Piscataquis County from 1852 to 1860. During this time Rice also serves as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1856. At the outset of the Civil War, Rice is elected as a Republican Representative and serves in Congress from March 4, 1861 to March 3, 1867. He chairs the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds during the Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Congresses. Afterward, Rice declines to be a candidate for renomination. From 1861 to 1871, he also serves as the United States collector of customs at the port of Bangor, Maine. In 1871, Rice moves to Washington, D.C., where he practices law for twelve years. In 1884 he moves to New York City to practice law until 1889, when he moves to Chicago, Illinois. He dies in Chicago and is interred in Oakwood Cemetery.

Rice, George D.
Rice is judge of the Superior Court in 1858. He presides over the sale of Amory Dexter's assets in 1867. Rice judges a transaction between the Yahoola Mining Company and Dexter to be legal. After the Civil War, Rice buys Dexter's house in Dahlonega. He also purchases a lot at Porter Springs, a local recreational area.

Rider Mine (Ga.)
When gold is discovered in 1828, the majority of the Rider family wins land in the land lottery and moves to Lumpkin County. Samuel Rider wins a couple of gold land lots and discovers veins of gold. Eventually the Rider Mine is associated with Amory Dexter. Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd decides to purchase it, but it proves expensive to work. Dexter advises Boyd to invest in steam drills and pumps to work the hard rock.

Roberts, James M.
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Roberts, Thomas H.
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Roberts, William S.
Founding member and president of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. In 1862 Roberts acquires the Lawrence House, a hotel in Dahlonega. He also purchases the Eagle Hotel from Harrison W. Riley. The Eagle later becomes known as Besser House and Hall's Villa.

Rockmart (Ga.)
The location of the post office where the Annie Gold Mining Company receives mail.

Rowland, Charles A.
Founding member of the Chestatee River and Town Creek Gold Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Rosenthal, J. G.
Merchant in Delaware, Ohio, who serves on the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company.

Rowman, J. R.
Vice president of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891.

Rudolph, Amzi
First lieutenant, Eighth Georgia Infantry Regiment, State Troops, Company G, November 7, 1861. Mustered out at Savannah, Georgia, May 1862. Elected first lieutenant, Smith's Legion, Georgia Infantry Battalion, Company D, May 15, 1863. Transferred to Company H and elected captain September 8, 1862, to Company F, Sixty-fifth Georgia Infantry Regiment, March 1863. Captured and paroled at Athens, Georgia, May 8, 1865. Acting as an agent for the Augusta and Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, Rudolph claims the Right of Possession of property that Jasper Gayden refuses to vacate. Rudolph is a member of the board of trustees of North Georgia Agricultural College in 1886. A resident of Gainesville, his father-in-law is Wier Boyd. Rudolph's daughter marries Turner Quillian of Hall County in 1890.

Rudolph, Mr.
Dahlonega resident to whom Amory Dexter conveys his regards in a letter to Wier Boyd. Possibly Amzi Rudolph.

Rudolph, Mrs.
Dahlonega resident to whom Amory Dexter conveys his regards in a letter to Wier Boyd.

Rudolph v. Gayden
Amzi Rudolph, acting as an agent of the Augusta and Dahlonega Gold Mining Company, sues Jasper Gayden, asserting that Gayden does not have a legal right to occupy a lot of Lumpkin County property he refuses to vacate. Deputy Sheriff John C. Early settles the dispute by assigning ownership of the property to R. Archer.

Rush, Willard I.
Miner and capitalist from Kansas City, Missouri who serves as the general manager and as a member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901.

S [return to top]

Saint Louis (Mo.)
Location of the office of the Etowah Gold Mining Company in 1891.

Santa Fe (N.M.)
In a letter to Wier Boyd in 1880, William Sumner Hungerford lists Santa Fe as his address while he is prospecting in Socorro, New Mexico. The oldest capital city in North America, Santa Fe is also the oldest European city west of the Mississippi. Santa Fe's Palace of the Governors, built in 1610, is reportedly the oldest public building in the United States. The Santa Fe Fiesta, established in 1712 to celebrate the Spanish reconquest of New Mexico in 1692, is the oldest European community celebration in the United States. The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad is completed in 1880, initiating an economic revolution in Santa Fe, and in New Mexico generally. President Rutherford B. Hayes appoints Lew Wallace as territorial governor to clean up government corruption fostered by the new economic opportunities in the state. Billy the Kid threatens Wallace's life, but Wallace persists and even finishes writing his novel, Ben Hur, while in office.

Schultze, T. B.
Chemist from Cleveland, Ohio, who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898.

Scupin, Otto C.
Stockholder in the Phoenix Gold Mining Company who occupies rent-free a house owned by the company. When the board of directors decide to evict Scupin, he counters with a lawsuit. F. E. Dickie provides details of the affair to Wier Boyd and advises Boyd to file Scupin's affidavit for presentation at a later time. Dickie argues that F. C. Exter and T. J. Cheney have acquired the title from Scupin and that deeds were recorded in both Dawson and Lumpkin County.

Sherman (Colo.)
William Sumner Hungerford resides in Sherman, located in Hinsdale County, in 1881. Miners in Sherman have to fight snow in the winter and floods in the spring. Some rich strikes are made during the late 1870s and early 1880s, and the Sherman House Hotel is built, transforming the camp into a village. Early residents design a town with wide streets and alleyways. One large building contains a dormitory, grocery and general store, butcher shop and slaughterhouse, bakery, and storage and forwarding house. During the mining boom in summer, the population reaches three hundred. Mining persists into the early 1900s and sporadically until 1925. Parts of some of the original cabins still remain, but Sherman is now a ghost town.

Shope, Simeon P., 1834-1920
Secretary, treasurer and member of the board of directors of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901. In 1904, he is the secretary of the company. Born in Akron, Ohio, Shope studies law under Judges Powell and Purple. He serves in the Illinois House of Representatives from 1862 to 1864, and as a circuit court judge in the 10th and 6th Districts from 1877 to 1885, when he is elected to the Illinois Supreme Court. He serves as a member of the Illinois Supreme Court until 1894, serving as chief justice in 1889. Shope is a member of several service organizations, including the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, the Order of Knights of Pythias, and the Masonic Order. An automobile accident in Chicago is the cause of his death.

Sibley, Josiah
Founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Singleton, Joseph J.
Joseph J. Singleton comes to Dahlonega in the 1830s. He helps a free African American named James Boisclair to buy a mine lot, which Boisclair works successfully. The mine becomes known as the "Free Jim Mine." With the proceeds, Boisclair establishes the largest general merchandise store in town and a bar room. Singleton becomes president of the United States Branch Mint at Dahlonega when it opens in 1837. His daughter marries Fred Lucas, a merchant, and moves to Athens. His son, also Joseph J. Singleton, once a professor of mathematics at North Georgia College, becomes a minister in the Methodist Church. Though not a member of any church himself, Singleton helps build the Baptist Church and is on the building committee. Singleton's wife Mary is the first to put her letter into the Baptist Church the day of its first meeting in 1838. In 1882, Singleton owns at least 500 shares in the Georgia River Mining Company.

Sitton, M.
Possibly Marion Sitton, a musician. Mathew F. Stephenson reports in 1862 that M. Sitton is not regaining his health.

Socorro (N.M.)
William Sumner Hungerford visits Socorro in 1881 during a prospecting trip across the southwestern United States. Hungerford reports very good mining prospects in New Mexico. The name "Socorro" signifies the assistance Spanish colonizers receive from the local Pueblo Indians in 1598. In 1854, Fort Craig is built south of Socorro to protect the area against Apache and Navajo raids, and to protect the northern end of El Camino Real. The fort remains a Union army post during the Civil War. Just as suggested by Hungerford's correspondence, eastern miners, merchants, and cattlemen arrive with the railroad in 1880. Mines and smelters in the area contribute greatly to the importance of Socorro. Socorro also features a grain mill and a brewery. California Mission-style homes are built among the original adobe buildings. The town is the county seat of Socorro County, the third largest in New Mexico. Today, Socorro is home to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, which is the base of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The NRAO operates the Very Large Array radio telescopes on the Plains of San Augustin, not far from Socorro. The nearby Bosque del Apache Wildlife Refuge makes Socorro a popular destination for bird enthusiasts.

Somes, Daniel E. (Daniel Eton), 1815-1888
A resident of Washington, D.C., Somes witnesses the 1867 sale of land by the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company. He also receives capital stock in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in exchange for land in 1867. Born in Meredith (now Laconia), New Hampshire, Somes receives an academic education. In 1846 he moves to Biddeford, Maine and establishes the Eastern Journal, later known as the Union and Journal. Somes also manufactures loom harnesses, reed twine, and varnishes. He serves as mayor of Biddeford from 1855 to 1857. Somes is president of the City Bank of Biddeford from 1856 to 1858. He is elected as a Republican to the Thirty-sixth Congress and serves from March 4, 1859 to March 3, 1861. Somes is a member of the peace convention of 1861 held in Washington, D.C., an effort to devise means to prevent the impending Civil War. He engages in the practice of patent law in Washington, D.C. until his death.

Sovey, Cecil R.
Assistant secretary at the mines of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1901.

Stanley, Mr.
Amory Dexter relates to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that he has directed Stanley to collect money for the sale of office furniture and deliver it to Boyd.

State Banking Company
In 1913, Frank P. Drane, assayer in charge of the United States Assay Office in Charlotte, North Carolina, issues a check to the State Banking Company in Gainesville, Georgia in exchange for gold.

Stephenson, Mathew Fleming, 1803-1881
Gold miner and promoter of gold mining in the Dahlonega region. In 1836, Stephenson marries Sarah Elizabeth Sumter Lyon in Habersham County, Georgia. In 1849, as miners prepare to leave Georgia for California, Stephenson speaks from the steps of the Lumpkin County Courthouse, exhorting them to remain. Reportedly pointing to Findley Ridge, he argues, "Why go to California? In that ridge lies more gold than man ever dreamt of. There's millions in it." In 1850, President Millard Fillmore names Stephenson assayer of the Branch Mint of the United States at Dahlonega, a position he holds for four years. Stephenson continues mining and promoting the Dahlonega mining industry. Stephenson writes several scientific papers discussing the geological features of Georgia. He also writes two ethnological treatises about Indian mounds in Bartow County. He diverts the Chestatee River from its natural course to benefit mining operations, an action that is criticized by some for damaging the environment. Stephenson is not a particularly successful miner, in spite of his enthusiasm. By the 1870s, he acquires land in Gainesville, Georgia, where he is buried in an unmarked grave. In 1917 the first public library in Lumpkin County is founded by the Lumpkin County Home and School Improvement Club to honor Stephenson.

Sunshine Mining Company
William Sumner Hungerford manages this gold mining company, located in Sherman, Colorado.

T [return to top]

Tamarack Mining Company of Michigan
A copper mining company cited in the 1901 Prospectus of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company to show the rewards possible from an investment in mining company stock. Tamarack purchases land to the west of the Calumet and Hecla mine, assuming that the lode being mined at Calumet and Hecla extends below for several thousand feet. Operations begin in 1882, and a shaft is dug over 2,000 feet straight down over the course of three years. The lode is intersected only ten feet from the original calculations. Five vertical shafts are completed, with a maximum depth of over 5,000 feet.

Thies, Adolph
Chemist and manager of the Haile Gold Mine in Lancaster, South Carolina. Around 1898, Thies treats Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore with chlorination to demonstrate the viability of the process for extracting gold. Underground mining at the Haile Gold Mine is unsuccessful until the company hires Thies, a native German trained in metallurgy and experienced as a mining engineer. He develops the "Thies Barrel Chlorination Process" to extract gold from low-grade sulfite ore. During the 1890s the mine grows to sixty stamps, and includes a narrow gauge railroad. Thies retires in 1904, leaving two of his sons, Ernest and Dolph, to supervise the mine. Ernest and two others are killed in 1908 when a boiler explodes in the concentration room with a force that lifts the smokestack one-hundred feet in the air and scatters parts of the building widely.

Thomas, John B.
Colonel. Thomas helps start the Dahlonega Advertiser newspaper in 1876 in a room of the North Georgia College building. The paper is merged with the Signal in only a few months. Thomas becomes postmaster of Jay, Georgia in 1888. In 1889, he is suggested for mayor of Jay. Thomas owes money to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd and James F. Head. He owns a quarter interest in the lease of the Annie Gold Mine, which he claims is not producing much. In response to a lawsuit by Boyd and Head, Thomas assures them that he expects the Annie Gold Mine to sell soon and asks for more time to pay his debt.

Thompson, J. A.
Owns at least one-hundred shares of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company in 1904. In 1917, he reopens an old pit of the Bluff Head Mine in Newfoundland, and ships eighty tons of ore to the United States and Nova Scotia.

Thomson, Frank G.
Banker and broker from Toledo, Ohio who serves as a board member for the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898.

Thomson, Henry Clay
Editor of the Delaware Gazette in Delaware, Ohio, who serves as secretary, treasurer, and on the board of directors of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. The Delaware Gazette, founded in 1818, has been owned by one family longer than any other American daily newspaper. Henry Clay Thomson assumes control from his father, Abram Thomson, and serves as the editor from 1897 to 1926.

Toledo (Ohio)
In 1898, a branch office of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company is located in Toledo, Ohio.

Torrey & Eaton
Chemists at the United States Mint. Herbert Gray Torrey reports the results of an assay of ore from the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in its 1898 prospectus. The name Torrey & Eaton suggests the existence of a partnership between H. G. Torrey's father (the famous botanist John Torrey), and John Torrey's primary influence, Amos Eaton (a pioneer of natural history studies in America). John Torrey learns botany, mineralogy and chemistry from Amos Eaton. John Torrey is chief assayer to the United States Assay Office from 1853 until his death in 1873.

Torrey, Herbert Gray, 1838-1915
U.S. Mint assayer in Washington, D.C. who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898. Torrey is the son of the famous botanist John Torrey. He becomes his father's assistant at the U.S. Assay Office in Manhattan. Torrey suffers from curvature of the spine that is later corrected through surgery. In 1868 he marries Marie Louise Snow. In 1872, Frederick S. Winston seeks Torrey's assistance to complete new buildings in Stirling, New Jersey. He owns a small metal factory in Stirling, and establishes a rock quarry in West Millington in the early 1900s. Torrey is active in local politics and the Presbyterian Church. He also establishes and runs a park by the railroad station.

Trask & Francis
Banking firm in New York City. Trask & Francis writes a prefatory letter for the prospectus of the Findley Gold Mining Company in 1878.

Tregent, Harry B.
Assistant superintendent of the Dahlonega Gold Mining and Milling Company.

Trimble, Mr.
William Sumner Hungerford asks Wier Boyd if he will be able to close the trade with Trimble soon, releasing Hungerford from the debts of an unnamed concern, possibly the Cincinnati Mining Company. The trade Hungerford speaks of includes payment of a debt Trimble owes him. Hungerford offers a discount to encourage Trimble to settle his account immediately with cash. Hungerford alludes to the possibility that Trimble may be opening a store.

U-V [return to top]

United States. Assay Office, Charlotte, N.C.
Location where gold can be deposited in 1905. The Charlotte Branch Mint begins making gold coins in 1838. Operations continue through 1861, when the Confederacy takes control of the Mint. After 1861, no more coins are produced. The plant is reopened in 1868 as an Assay Office, but operations cease on June 30, 1913, when the plant is closed.

United States. Mint
Central Mint of the United States of America, located in Washington, D.C. The Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company includes in their 1898 prospectus results of ore assays by H. G. Torrey of Torrey & Eaton, chemists at the U.S. Mint.

Van Dyke, Marius H.
With Amory Dexter, a civil engineer, Van Dyke builds the Yahoola Canal, an aqueduct about twenty-five miles long beginning at the headwaters of Yahoola Creek over seven miles north of Dahlonega. Their system of trenches uses gravity to deliver water with enough force to wash down hillsides. Van Dyke advertises in the Signal on July 6, 1858 for 100 hands to labor for the Yahoola and Cane Creek Hydraulic Works. In a letter dated 1877, Amory Dexter admonishes Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd for conditionally selling the Amory Mineral Right to Van Dyke, warning that Van Dyke has made a low offer and will simply refuse to buy the mineral right if tests do not prove the mine rich. Dexter emphasizes that such a deal was not the sense of the trade and that Nathan H. Hand will pay more money without testing. Dexter nevertheless conveys his regards to the doctor and his son.

Van Schultz & Low
Assayer who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ore around 1898.

Van Vleck, Mr.
In a letter to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd, William Sumner Hungerford refers snidely to Van Vleck, the brother-in-law of F. M. Williams, who pays debts and rent reluctantly.

W-Y [return to top]

Wahl, Christian
Businessman from Milwaukee, whom Hungerford identifies with a project to develop a mine on Whim Hill in Auraria. In 1892, Wahl buys the Hand & Barlow United Gold Mines and Hydraulic Works of Georgia from Nathan H. Hand. A few years later, the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company acquires the United Gold Mines from Wahl.

Wainwright, Mr.
Wainwright, who lives in Boston, is concerned that Dr. Vandyke will not make payments on property he has bought. Amory Dexter communicates Wainwright's fears and suggests to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that he sell to others if Dr. Vandyke does not come up with the money.

Walton, James B.
Founding member of the Augusta and Dahlonega Mining Company, incorporated in 1863 by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia.

Ward Creek Mine (Ga.)
Three miles from Dahlonega, the Ward Creek Mine is part of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company in 1898. Jesse Hogan argues that he is the first to find gold in north Georgia, claiming he found gold on a branch of Ward's Creek in Lumpkin County, close to what would later become Dahlonega.

Washington (D.C.)
The transfer of property from the Dahlonega Gold Mining Company to the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company is certified by John S. Hollingshead, Commissioner for Georgia in the District of Columbia, and a resident of Washington, D.C.

Weld, Arthur
Assayer and mining engineer from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who evaluates Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company ores around 1898. His description and evaluation of properties owned by the company appears in its prospectus. Weld is a member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers.

Wellborn, Mr.
Delivers evidence for the Etowah Gold Mining Company in the case Exter v. Etowah Gold Mining Company. F. E. Dickie asks Wier Boyd to obtain a receipt from Wellborn indicating that he received payment for the delivery.

Whim Hill
Property owned by Christian Wahl. William Sumner Hungerford asks Wier Boyd whether Wahl has begun development of Whim Hill.

White County (Ga.)
William Sumner Hungerford writes to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd that he hears accounts in the newspapers of rich gold discoveries in White County, and a large influx of speculators. White County is created in 1857 from part of Habersham County.

Williams, F. M., 1831-1911
Twenty-third Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Born in Tennessee, Williams leaves for Union County at the age of eighteen. Williams serves during the Civil War in the Twenty-third Regiment, Company B. Afterward he organizes a new company of which he is elected captain. From 1872 to 1873 he serves in the legislature from Union County. He later moves to Dahlonega and is elected ordinary for three terms. He is elected to the legislature from Lumpkin County and serves from 1898 to 1899. Williams owes money to Amory Dexter, and one of the primary themes of Dexter's letters to Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd is concern about Williams' delinquency. In spite of his alleged money problems, Williams donates land for Oak Grove School, is a member of the Methodist Church, and is a member of the Masonic Order. In 1897 he is one of seventeen citizens of Dahlonega weighing over 200 pounds; he weighs 246.

Williams, R. F.
Williams may have been the supervisor of the Cincinnati Mining Company. He pays rent to Wier Boyd. William Sumner Hungerford directs Boyd to sell the house Williams is living in and its furniture if Williams fails to pay rent.

Windom, William, 1827-1891
Landowner from Minnesota who receives capital stock in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company in exchange for land in 1867. He is president of the company in 1868. Born in Belmont County, Ohio, Windom moves to Minnesota Territory in 1855. He serves as a Representative from Minnesota from March 4, 1859 to March 3, 1869. He is appointed to the Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel S. Norton, and serves from July 15, 1870, to January 22, 1871, when Ozora P. Stearns is elected to the position. Windom is then elected to the Senate and serves from March 4, 1871 to March 7, 1881. In 1881, he is appointed as United States secretary of the Treasury by President James Garfield, and serves until he resigns from the cabinet effective November, having again been elected senator. He serves in the Senate until March 3, 1883, having been an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1882. He moves to New York City in 1883 and practices law. In 1889, he is appointed secretary of the Treasury again in the cabinet of President Benjamin Harrison and serves until his death in New York. His great-grandson is character actor William Windom.

Wing, Joseph K.
Amory Dexter suggests Colonel Wing as a prospective buyer of one of the timber carts he wishes to sell. In 1868, Wing owns at least fifty shares in the Lumpkin Chestatee Mining Company.

Woodward, Joseph W., ca. 1843-1922
Captain, Fifty-second Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company D. Enlisted as private, Company D, Second Georgia Infantry Regiment, April 19, 1861. Discharged Richmond, Virginia, December 1861. Elected first lieutenant, Fifty-second Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company D, March 4, 1862. Elected captain August 20, 1862. Captured Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 4, 1863. Paroled there July 1863. Left arm permanently disabled at New Hope Church, Georgia, May 25, 1864. In State Line Hospital at Jonesboro, Georgia at close of war. Presumably an employee of the Rider Mine Company, Woodward holds equipment used by the company. Amory Dexter informs Wier Boyd that he should collect the equipment from Woodward in 1868. Joe Woodward may be Captain J. W. Woodward, who rents the Masonic Lodge Hall built after the fire that consumes the Harrison Riley Hotel.

Wooten, Mr.
Wooten asks Dahlonega attorney Wier Boyd if he can buy or rent the Payne House, owned by Amory Dexter's cousin.

Yahoola Canal (a.k.a. Hand Canal)
Dr. Marius H. Van Dyke and Amory Dexter build the original Yahoola Ditch, which is twenty-five miles long. After augmentation by Nathan H. Hand, the canal system is forty miles long. Owned by the Hand Gold Company in 1878, the canal supplies water to the Findley Gold Mining Company reservoir. The system of ditches delivers water from the Yahoola River by slight grades along the mountainsides, crossing the valleys by inverted siphons of wrought iron. Constructed before and after the Civil War, the canal costs almost half a million dollars to build.

Yahoola Mine (Ga.)
Lying next to the Hand Mine property, the Yahoola consists of 120 acres. The mining operation is powered by water from a reservoir, and the mill is powered by the Yahoola River. The property draws additional power from the dam at the Mary Henry Mill.

Yahoola River and Cane Creek Hydraulic Hose Mining Company
Dahlonega mining company formed in 1858 by a group of investors in Boston. Dr. Marius H. Van Dyke serves as director of the company and advertises for 100 laborers to initiate the mining operation. Construction of the aqueduct needed to supply water to the mine location is directed by Amory Dexter, a young mining engineer. Dexter is a relative of the company president, John Blake, and of several company officers. His diary suggests that by the beginning of the Civil War, the aqueduct is operational. Dexter also directs the construction of a stamp mill to process gold. The Civil War causes the Mint to close and mail service to stop in Dahlonega. By the summer of 1861, laborers and money to pay them become scarce. After the war, the Yahoola company repairs and completes the aqueduct, providing water to a portion of the company's property. The company then decides to replace the wooden trestle across the Yahoola River with iron tubes. The large sum of money needed for the project and for the erection of stamp mills is furnished by Nathan H. Hand, from Cleveland, Ohio. Hand assumes the role of treasurer from King in 1867. After the improvements are completed, a misunderstanding arises among the stockholders, resulting in a suspension of work and a court battle. Letters from Amory Dexter to Wier Boyd indicate that the stockholders claim collusion against company interests between Hand and Frank W. Hall, purported to be the richest man in the county. Dexter alludes that the value of Yahoola stock is falling in 1867. The lawsuit is terminated by the United States marshal selling the property to Hand, as settlement for debts owed by the company to Frank W. Hall. The company becomes the Hand Gold Mining Company. By 1898, the Yahoola Mine is part of Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company.

Yale University
The Announcement of the Dahlonega Consolidated Gold Mining Company of 1898 contains a report on the gold field and waterpower available to properties in the Dahlonega area by Professor Blake from Yale College. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School in the home of Abraham Pierson, the school moves to New Haven, Connecticut in 1716. The school becomes known as Yale in 1718 when it receives generous supplies from Elihu Yale. During the 1800s, the school expands steadily, establishing the Medical Institution in 1810, the Divinity School in 1822, the Law School in 1843, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 1847, the School of Fine Arts in 1869, and the School of Music in 1894. In 1887, Yale College becomes Yale University. The School of Forestry and Environmental Studies is established in 1900.

Yeates, William Smith, 1856-1908
Born in Murfreesboro, North Carolina, Yeates marries Julia Wheeler Moore in 1884. The son of Jesse J. Yeates and Virginia Scott, Yeates studies at Emory and Henry College, Virginia, earning a B.A. in 1878 and a M.A. in 1881. Yeates serves on the U.S. Fish Commission in 1879. After teaching from 1879 to 1880, Yeates is employed in the Fisheries Division of the Nineteenth U.S. Census from 1880 to 1881. From 1881 to 1893, he serves the U.S. National Museum in a number of capacities, including aid, assistant, acting curator, and assistant curator in charge of the collection of minerals and gems. Yeates also works as a professor of Mineralogy at the Corcoran Scientific School of Columbian University in Washington, D.C. from 1884 to 1893. From 1890 to 1893, he serves additionally as Professor of Geology. Yeates serves as the executive commander for Georgia in the Louisiana Purchase Expedition in charge of geology and forestry. A fellow in the Geological Society of America, Yeates makes his home in Atlanta, Georgia in 1893 and serves as the state geologist of Georgia and curator of the Georgia State Museum. He reports on the gold deposits of Georgia around 1896 and 1901.



Return to "Thar's Gold in Them Thar Hills" Homepage


Digital Library of Georgia | GALILEO

A project of the Digital Library of Georgia in association with the Lumpkin County Library, Chestatee Regional Library System as part of Georgia HomePLACE. This project is supported with federal LSTA funds administered by the Institute of Museum and Library Services through the Georgia Public Library Service, a unit of the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia.