Digital Library of Georgia > Materials from the Hargrett Library > Cornelius C. Platter Diary, 1864 - 1865

Cornelius C. Platter Civil War Diary, 1864-1865
Historical Timeline: November 10, 1864-April 27, 1865

Images from Barnard's Photographic Views of the Sherman Campaign, ca. 1866

10 November 1864 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
President Lincoln addresses a crowd at the White House on his recent re-election. Confederate Lt. General Jubal Early moves his weakened army towards Philip Henry Sheridan's forces. Forrest moves his troops toward John Bell Hood's encampment. Sherman leaves Kingston for Atlanta destroying all property as he goes. He orders that the railroads in the environs of Atlanta be destroyed.

11 November 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union troops in Rome, Georgia destroy the city and go to Atlanta to join the rest of the army. There are skirmishes near Shoal Creek, Alabama and fighting in Russellville, Tennessee. Union troops foil a plot to turn the Salvador, a merchant ship, into a Confederate raider.

12 November 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sheridan and Early fight at Middletown and Cedar Creek. Sparing only homes and churches, Sherman's troops continue their destruction of Atlanta.

13 November 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Early's already weakened troops split-- one portion returns to New Market while the remainder goes to Richmond and Petersburg to assist Lee's troops. Fighting breaks out between Union troops and Native Americans near Fort Larned, Kansas, and troops hunt down Confederate guerrillas in Pemiscot County, Missouri.

14 November 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's troops continue destroying the railroads, bridges, and anything else of military value in Atlanta. They also target Decatur and Stone Mountain. General John M. Schofield assumes command of the troops in Pulaski, Tennessee. They are the first line of defense against Hood who is near Florence, Alabama. McClellan, Lincoln's opponent in the presidential race, resigns his commission as a Major General.

15 November 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union and Confederate troops fight in Atlanta while the destruction of the city is completed. Near Shoal Creek (northern Alabama), Hood continues his fight with Union troops.

16 November 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's troops begin their journey to Savannah. They forage and destroy as they go. In an attempt to trick the Confederates, Sherman sends his troops on two different routes—one towards Lovejoy Station, where troops under George W. Smith and Joseph Wheeler are located, and the other towards Augusta. Hood continues his battle at Shoal Creek. Forrest's calvary arrives and bolsters Hood's forces. In the eastern part of the state, John Cabell Breckenridge skirmishes with Union troops at Strawberry Plain before withdrawing to southwestern Virginia.

17 November 1864 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
In letters to several Georgia state senators, Jefferson Davis denounces any attempts by individual states to negotiate peace with the North. Sherman's troops continue their divergent routes. Under the orders of Jefferson Davis, General William J. Hardee assumes command of all troops in Georgia. There is fighting in Maysville and at New Market (North Alabama).

18 November 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Jefferson Davis orders Howell Cobb, commander of the Georgia Reserves, to block Sherman's march. He is to use slaves to help obstruct the roads in the path of the Union troops. Confederate troops and guerilla troops continue their harassment of Union forces in Missouri. Hood begins his return to Tennessee.

19 November 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown calls upon his citizens to resist the incursion of Sherman's troops. At Plum Creek Station (Nebraska Territory), Union soldiers and Native Americans battle. As the ports at Norfolk, Virginia and Fernandina and Pensacola are now under Union control, Lincoln lifts their blockades. The C.S.S. Chickamauga challenges the Union blockade near Wilmington, N.C.

20 November 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Continuing their march, Sherman's troops fight enemy cavalry, home-guards and state militia at Clinton, Walnut Creek, East Macon, and Griswoldsville, Georgia.

Barnard, Nashville, from the Capitol21 November 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Hood crosses into Tennessee at Florence, Alabama. He plans to position his troops between Schofield at Pulaski and Thomas at Nashville. Sherman's troops soundly defeat the Georgia militia at Griswoldville. General William J. Hardee, now in charge of the Confederate troops in Georgia, decides that the Northern troops are heading to either Augusta or Savannah. General Smith's forces move eastward to block the right wing's advance while Joseph Wheeler's cavalry prepares to attack from behind.

22 November 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Hood's troops move towards Columbia in an attempt to cut off Schofield in Pulaski and capture the city. In preparation, Schofield moves his troops toward Columbia. In Milledgeville just prior to its occupation, the Georgia state legislature issues a plea for defensive action against Sherman. The Union soldiers ransack the Capitol, and the troops continue their scorched earth policy. The Georgia state militia mounts an ineffective attack on the right wing.

23 November 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Hood's army continues its journey to Columbia. Sherman's forces reunite in Milledgeville. Fighting continues in Milledgeville and breaks out at Ball's Ferry and a railroad bridge over the Oconee River.

24 November 1864 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Schofield's troops beat Hood to Columbia and help repulse Forrest's Confederate cavalry.

25 November 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
In New York City, fires are set at ten hotels, two downtown theaters, and Barnum's Museum by Southern arsonists. Wheeler's Cavalry unsuccessfully skirmishes with Union forces in Sandersville, Georgia. The northern troops take the city. Schofield's troops continue to await Hood.

26 November 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Hood finally arrives in Columbia. Sherman slowly moves out of Sandersville. In Nebraska, Native American-Union fighting once again erupts in Plum Creek Station and at Spring Creek.

27 November 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Due to confederate sabotage, General Benjamin Butler's headquarters, the Greyhound, blows up. In Moorefield, West Virginia, Union and Confederate forces skirmish. Because of faulty intelligence, Schofield moves his troops across the Duck River. At Waynesboro, Georgia, the Union march is halted by a Confederate cavalry attack.

28 November 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Confederate General Thomas L. Rosser's cavalry destroys a Maryland bridge on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and then retreats into Virginia. A portion of the Union forces remains in Columbia while Hood moves his troops east to cut off their anticipated retreat. Forrest's cavalry drives its Union opponents north. In Georgia, Sherman's men continue destroying railroads and skirmish at Buckhead Church, Buckhead Creek, Davisborough, and Waynesboro.

29 November 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The repulsed Union cavalry in Tennessee warns Schofield of an attack from the north. In response to the northward movement of the Confederates, Schofield moves north to Franklin and slips by the Confederates. In an attempt to draw Confederate troops away, Sherman sends Kilpatrick there. The Colorado militia massacre the Cheyenne in Sand Creek, Colorado Territory. Later, the Sand Hill massacre will be condemned by the Federal government.

30 November 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union troops arrive in Franklin and entrench themselves. When the Confederates reach Franklin later in the day and attack, a bloody battle ensues. The Confederates suffer heavy casualties, approximately one-fifth of their men whereas less than one-tenth of the Union troops are lost. Sherman crosses the Ogeechee River. In an attack in Hilton Head, South Carolina, Union troops attempt to cut off the Charleston and Savannah Railroad.

1 December 1864 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Schofield's troops join George's men in Nashville and are followed by Hood.

2 December 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Weakened, Hood's army attempts to bolster itself. Haffelk orders George Henry Thomas to attack Hood. Sherman's troops move south away from Augusta.

3 December 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Forrest's cavalry attempts a blockade of the river near Nashville. Sherman has arrived at Millen, Georgia, a Confederate stockade. While there, he orders the destruction of the railroads in the surrounding area. The Union troops begin to converge en route and encounter resistance near Thomas Station.

4 December 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Confederate cavalry attacks General Hugh J. Kilpatrick's men as they destroy the railroad near Waynesboro, Georgia, but is repelled. Other fighting occurs Statesborough, Lumpkin Station, along the Georgia Central Railroad, and on the Little Ogeechee River. Thomas readies his forces. Confederate cavalry make successful raids at White's Station and Bell's Mills.

5 December 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Forrest's cavalry engages federal troops garrisoned at Murfreesboro.

6 December 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Thomas is once again pushed to attack Hood, this time by Ulysses S. Grant.

7 December 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Thomas has still not attacked. Grant threatens to remove him unless he does so. Forrest's men continue their assault on the garrison at Murfreesboro. Robert L. Milroy's troops come to the rescue and defeat Forrest.

8 December 1864 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
South of Petersburg, Virginia, skirmishes take place. Nearing the coast, Sherman's forces encounter land mines, called "land torpedoes," along the route and skirmish at Ebenezer Creek and near Bryan Court House. Naval General Benjamin Butler prepares to destroy the Confederate's Fort Fisher and close the port of Wilmington, N.C.

Barnard, Savannah9 December 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Light skirmishing continues south of Petersburg. Grant orders Schofield to replace Thomas as commander of Union troops in Nashville, but relents when Thomas explains that a severe winter storm was hampering their efforts. Sherman is on the outskirts of Savannah. There are skirmishes at the Ogeechee Canal, Monteith Swamp, and Cuyler's Plantation.

10 December 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Skirmishing continues around Petersburg at Fort Holly. An ice storm continues to postpone the battle between Hood and Thomas. As the rice plantations around Savannah had been flooded by the Confederates, Sherman's entries to the city were limited. Sherman decides to lay siege to the city and to attain needed supplies by attacking Fort McAllister. General George Stoneman's men set out to destroy enemy salt and lead mines in southwest Virginia. The Confederate Steamer Ida is captured and burned.

11 December 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Grant presses Thomas. In preparation for their attack of Fort McAllister, Union troops repair the Kings Bridge.

12 December 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The icy weather continues to delay the battle in Nashville. Sherman's men continue to rebuild the bridge. At Big Creek near Rogersville, eastern Tennessee, cavalry forces skirmish.

13 December 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Frustrated, Grant orders Major General John A. Logan to replace Thomas in Nashville. Confederate troops successfully attack a railroad train outside of Murfreesboro. Sherman's troops capture Fort McAllister, and General Stoneman's force overcomes the enemies in Kingsport, Tennessee. Leaving Fort Monroe, the Union troops set in motion Butler's plan to destroy Fort Fisher.

14 December 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Thomas informs Washington that he will attack Hood the next day. Stoneman's men fight in Bristol, Tennessee and capture 300 Confederates. The week-long bombardment of the Confederate forts, Rosedow and Beaulieu, begins.

15 December 1864 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
During day one of the Battle of Nashville, Union troops wage a fierce battle against Hood. They drive the Confederates back a mile. In Virginia, Stoneman's raiders hit Abingdon and Glade Springs.

16 December 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
During the second day of the battle, Hood's army retreats south toward Franklin. In Georgia, Sherman's troops skirmish at Hinesville. In Virginia, Stoneman's cavalry capture. In Virginia, Stoneman's cavalry take Wytheville and fight in Marion. There is a battle at Dudley Lake in Arkansas.

17 December 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Wilson pursues the Army of Tennessee, still without most of its cavalry. They skirmish at Hollow Tree Gap, the West Harpeth River, and Franklin. General William J. Hardee discovers that Lee's troops will be unable to reinforce them. Sherman demands the surrender of Savannah

18 December 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union troops follow Hood's men to Rutherford Creek near Columbia, Tennessee and skirmish at Spring Hill. In Savannah, Hardee refuses to surrender and plans to evacuate instead. Rear Admiral David Porter's fleet joins Butler's mission against Fort Fisher.

19 December 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
General Alfred Thomas A. Torbert's men begin their attempted destruction of the Virginia Central Railroad and meet strong Southern resistance. They skirmish in Gordonsville, Madison C.H., and Liberty Mills.

20 December 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Hood and Thomas fight at Columbia. Hardee evacuates Savannah and heads towards South Carolina. Stoneman and his men destroy the saltworks in Saltville, southwestern Virginia.

21 December 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union troops take Savannah. Stoneman's cavalry returns to Tennessee.

23 December 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Confederate retreat from Nashville continues with fighting near Columbus, Tennessee. Porter's fleet arrives near Wilmington, North Carolina. Butler's men explode an old ship outside Fort Fisher with little effect on the fort.

24 December 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln receives news of the surrender of Savannah. Skirmishing continues between Thomas' and Hoods' forces near Lynnville and Richland Creek, Tennessee. The bombardment of Fort Fisher begins, and troops arrive to storm the fort.

25 December 1864 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Skirmishes between U.S. and Confederate troops at Richland Creek, Devil's Gap, and White's Station, Tennessee. Butler continues his assault on Fort Fisher and captures Half Moon Battery. Confederate reinforcements are on their way to the fort, and Butler decides to withdraw.

26 December 1864 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Hood's men cross the Tennessee River at Bainbridge. Grant wishes to have Sherman fortify Savannah and then bolster the Army of the Potomac for its assault on Lee.

27 December 1864 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Tennessee army enters Mississippi and encamps. The last of Butler's men pull out, and the Navy renews the blockade.

28 December 1864 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Grant informs Lincoln of the failure to take Fort Fisher.

30 December 1864 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln suggests the removal of Butler from his command because of the fiasco at Fort Fisher. Francis P. Blair, an important political figure in Maryland, requests to meet with Jefferson Davis. Their meeting is seen as a precursor to the Hampton Roads Conference between Lincoln and Confederate Vice-President Alexander Stephens.

31 December 1864 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Confederates capture twenty-seven Union sailors in Charleston Harbor.

1 January 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Butler's men attempt to create a canal across Trent's Reach to bypass a bend in the James River. They set off 12,000 pounds of gunpowder yet fail to destroy the last wall holding the water in. There is more skirmishing with guerrilla groups in Arkansas at Bentonville.

3 January 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Grant replaces Butler with Mjor Gen. Alfred H. Terry as head of the effort to take Fort Fisher. To prepare for his incursion into South Carolina, Sherman sends a portion of his troops to Beaufort, South Carolina. Along the way, they fight at Hardeeville, South Carolina.

4 January 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Admiral Porter orders landing parties of almost 8000 be formed for storming the beaches near Fort Fisher. The troops working to Mobile & Ohio Railroad fight at Ponds, Mississippi.

5 January 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
In order to improve the chances for a peace settlement, President Lincoln allows James L. Singleton to pass through Union lines.

6 January 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln lobbies again for passage of the thirteenth amendment in the House of Representatives. Grant asks Lincoln to remove Butler from his command. At Huntsville, Arkansas, Union and Confederate soldiers fight.

7 January 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Butler is relieved of his command and is replaced by Major General Edward Ord. More of Sheridan's troops make their way to Petersburg to reinforce Union forces besieging the city. In the Colorado Territory, Union troops battle Native Americans at Julesburg and Valley Station. The Danish ship Sphinx, secretly bought by the Confederates to become the C.S.S. Stonewall, begins its journey from Copenhagen to the U.S.

8 January 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
General Alfred Terry's men arrive at Beaufort, North Carolina to join the mission against Fort Fisher.

9 January 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Moses Odell, one of New York's Democratic representatives, voices his support for the thirteenth amendment. Hood's retreating forces arrive in Tupelo, Mississippi. There are hopes to reassemble Hood's troops and to send them to reinforce Hardee in the Carolinas.

10 January 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Debate over the proposed thirteenth amendment continues in the House. Opponents believe passage would hinder peace efforts. Near Glasgow, Missouri there is fighting.

11 January 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Missouri Constitutional Convention resolves to abolish slavery in the state. Confederate General Thomas L Rosser successfully leads a small raid on Union troops in Beverly, West Virginia. They kill or wound 25 Union troops and take almost 600 prisoners.

12 January 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Maryland politician Francis P. Blair meets with Jefferson Davis to discuss the possibility for peace. Although his plan, an attack on the French in Mexico, meets with little support, the meeting paves the way for future peace discussions. Davis orders reinforcements be sent to reinforce Hardee's men. In Savannah Secretary of War Edward Stanton meets with freedmen to discuss their new-found freedom and to address allegations of mistreatment by Sherman.

13 January 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The bombardment of Fort Fisher begins. Terry's men land out of the range of the fort's guns. In Tupelo, Mississippi, Hood resigns.

14 January 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
A portion of Sherman's men travels to Pocotaligo, South Carolina. Porter's ships bombard Fort Fisher at the rate of 100 shells per minute. Terry's men prepare for the land attack while Colonel William Lamb, commander of the garrison, appeals for help from Braxton Bragg.

15 January 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The onslaught on Fort Fisher continues. In the afternoon, the Union forces launch a two pronged attack—over 2200 by sea and another 3300 by land. A portion of Terry's forces remains entrenched opposite Bragg's men. The Fort submits.

16 January 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Blair briefs Lincoln on his informal peace discussions with Davis. He also gives Lincoln a letter from Davis requesting peace negotiations between the two nations. The Confederate Congress resolves that Robert E. Lee should be appointed as general in chief. The resolutions are seen as a challenge to Davis' military command. At Fort Fisher, an accidental explosion kills 25 Union soldiers, and many more are wounded. In Georgia, Sherman issues Special Field Order Number 15. The Freedmen are to receive all the abandoned or confiscated land in coastal Georgia for homesteading. They are to receive forty acres until Congress formally decides their title. Schofield and his men make their way to Wilmington, North Carolina.

18 January 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Blair returns to Richmond with a letter from Lincoln to Davis. In it, Lincoln reiterates that he will only discuss peace if reunification is involved.

19 January 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lee accepts the position of general in chief of the Confederate amies. Sherman orders the march into South Carolina. Because of bad weather, the troops do not make much headway.

20 January 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's troops continue their gradual march to South Carolina. There is renewed fighting between Union troops and Native Americans near Fort Larned, Kansas.

21 January 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
General Sherman moves his headquarters out of Savannah toward Beaufort, South Carolina. Schofield's men continue their journey towards Wilmington.

22 January 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman orders Blair not to destroy the railroad running to Brachville, South Carolina.

Barnard, The "Capitol," Nashville, Tenn.23 January 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Davis signs the resolution creating the position of General-in-Chief of the Confederate Armies. Richard Taylor replaces Hood as commander of the Army of Tennessee. A Confederate attempt to blockade the James River is abandoned when four of their ships run aground.

24 January 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Confederate Congress proposes a prisoner exchange.

26 January 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
In order to deceive the Southern forces, Sherman sends an expeditionary force toward Charleston. There is skirmishing near Pocotaligo, South Carolina and Paint Rock, Alabama.

27 January 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
In DeKalb County, Alabama, Union and Confederate troops fight.

28 January 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Davis names Vice-President Alexander Stephens, Robert M. T. Hunter, president pro tempore of the Senate, and Assistant Secretary of War John A. Campbell as representatives to the upcoming peace talks. Sherman's army fights with Confederates along the Combahee River in South Carolina.

29 January 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's troops change course and head towards the interior of the state.

30 January 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Reinforcements from the Army of Tennessee arrive in Augusta, Georgia. There is fighting at Lawtonville, South Carolina and near Chaplintown, Kentucky.

31 January 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The House of Representatives passes what would become the thirteenth amendment by a margin of 199 to 56. Before it can become part of the Constitution, three fourths of the states must ratify it. Lincoln and Seward discuss the upcoming peace conference.

1 February 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Illinois is the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. The march into South Carolina begins in earnest. One wing heads towards Charleston while the other heads towards Augusta. As they move through the state, Sherman's men destroy private property against orders.

2 February 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln begins his journey to the Hampton Roads Conference. Rhode Island and Michigan ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Union troops continue their march through South Carolina.

3 February 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln and Seward meet with Stephens, Hunter and Campbell. Lincoln calls for recognition of the U.S. national authority. The meeting is not a success. Maryland, New York and West Virginia ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. There is fighting at Rivers' Bridge and Dillingham's Cross Roads in South Carolina.

Barnard, The New Capitol, Columbia, S.C.4 February 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln returns to Washington, and there is fighting in South Carolina at Angley's Post Office and Buford's Bridge. All of Sherman's troops now head towards Columbia.

5 February 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Grant plans to block supplies from the Confederate troops in Petersburg. The C.S.S. Stonewall (formerly known as the Sphinx) filled with provisions continues its journey to the U.S.

6 February 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Davis briefs Congress on the Hampton Roads Conference. In Petersburg, there is heavy fighting. As Sherman's men march, they meet with resistance at Fishburn's Plantation, on the Little Salkehatchie and near Barnwell. Boats filled with provisions for the Confederates at Wilmington are captured and destroyed. Lee assumes command of the Confederate armies, and John Cabell Breckinridge becomes the Confederate Secretary of War.

7 February 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Maine and Kansas ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, but it does not pass in Delaware. Confederate reinforcements arrive near Hatcher's Run, Virginia. There is fighting at Blackville, South Carolina.

8 February 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Massachusetts and Pennsylvania ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Union and Confederate troops battle at Williston and along South Edisto. Schofield's troops begin to arrive at Fort Fisher.

9 February 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Virginia Unionists approve the Thirteenth Amendment. Davis approves Lee's suggestion to pardon deserters who return to their posts within a month. There is fighting at Binnaker's Bridge and at Holman's Bridge in South Carolina.

10 February 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Ohio and Missouri ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Confederates continue their defensive efforts around Charleston. Union and Confederate troops fight near Charleston Harbor. Sherman continues his advance.

Barnard, Ruins of the R. R. Depot, Charleston11 February 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
There is fighting near Williamsburg, Virginia as well as Aiken, Johnson's Station, and Orangeburg, South Carolina. Sherman's men arrive at the Western Augusta and Charleston Railroad.

12 February 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln is declared president by the electoral college by a margin of 212 to 21. Sherman's men push back the Confederate forces at Orangeburg and begin to destroy the railway there and set fire to the town. By the end of the day nearly half the town is destroyed by the fire.

13 February 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The build-up of U.S. forces in the Great Lakes area incites complaints from Lord John Russell. Sherman's men near the Congaree River, South Carolina.

Barnard, Columbia from the Capitol14 February 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Both wings of Sherman's troops head towards Columbia, South Carolina.

15 February 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
There is fighting along the Congaree Creek, Savannah Creek, at Bates Ferry, Red Bank Creek, and Two League Cross Roads in South Carolina.

Barnard, Ruins in Columbia, S.C.16 February 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union troops shell Columbia, and Beauregard pulls out. Hardee prepares to evacuate Charleston.

Barnard, Ruins in Charleston, S.C.17 February 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The city of Columbia surrenders to Sherman. Union troops occupy the city. A fire breaks out, and by the next day, nearly two-thirds of the city has been destroyed. Hardee continues the evacuation of Charleston. The Union troops finally re-take Fort Sumter. Major General Jacob D. Cox moves his men towards Fort Anderson.

18 February 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
In Columbia, Sherman orders that the remaining railroads and industries be destroyed. Near Wilmington, North Carolina, Union troops bombard Fort Anderson, and Cox's men arrive south of Wilmington.

19 February 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The bombardment of Fort Anderson continues, and that night, the Confederates evacuate the fort. Union forces complete their destruction of Columbia and begin their journey toward Goldsboro, North Carolina. In Alabama, a Union expeditionary force skirmishes. Near Wilmington, the Confederates release floating torpedoes into the James River.

20 February 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Confederate House of Representatives approves the use of slaves as soldiers. Cox's men continue their efforts near Wilmington.

21 February 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Confederate Senate postpones its examination of the bill to make slaves soldiers. Lee plans to move his men to Burkeville, Virginia if they are forced to evacuate Richmond. General Braxton Bragg orders the evacuation of Wilmington, North Carolina. The Confederates destroy all that they cannot take with them.

22 February 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Kentucky votes down the Thirteenth Amendment. Union troops take Wilmington. There are engagements at Camden, South Carolina, and along the Wateree River. General Joseph E. Johnston takes over the command of the Confederate troops in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

23 February 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Fighting continues near Camden, South Carolina.

24 February 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Union soldiers continue their rampage through South Carolina. In retaliation, Northern foragers are killed.

25 February 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Because of bad weather, Sherman's progress is delayed.

26 February 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
There are engagements at Lynch Creek and Stroud's Mill, South Carolina. Sherman's Twentieth Corps arrive at Hanging Rock, South Carolina. Schofield prepares his troops for their move inland.

27 February 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sheridan sends his cavalry to destroy the Virginia Central Railroad and James River Canal and capture Lynchburg. Along Sherman's march route, Union and Confederate forces fight at Mount Elon and Cloud's House, South Carolina. There is also fighting at Spring Place, Georgia.

28 February 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Fighting occurs at Rocky Mount and Cheraw, South Carolina.

1 March 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Wisconsin passes the Thirteenth Amendment, while New York rejects it. Sheridan's and Early's cavalries fight Mount Crawford.

2 March 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lee proposes a meeting with Grant, but Grant demures. George A. Custer's cavalry decimates Early's at Waynesborough, Virginia—over 1000 Confederates are taken prisoner. After fighting at Thompson's Creek, South Carolina, Sherman's men approach the North Carolina border.

3 March 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Freedman's Bureau is established by Congress. After hearing of Lee's interest in a peace meeting, Lincoln instructs Grant not to meet with Lee unless to accept their surrender or about a purely military issue. Heading to Petersburg, Sheridan's troops take Charlottesville, Virginia. In South Carolina, there are engagements at Thompson's Creek and Big Black Creek. Sherman's troops arrive at the North Carolina border at Cheraw, South Carolina.

4 March 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln is inaugurated for his second term.

5 March 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's troops cross the Pee Dee River while Schofield remains in Wilmington.

6 March 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Most of Sherman's troops have now entered North Carolina.

7 March 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Cox and his men repair the railroads from New Berne to Goldsboro, North Carolina to allow supplies to reach Sherman's men. The Army of Tennessee reinforcements arrive in Kinston, North Carolina. They will join Bragg's men to attack Cox's men

8 March 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
En route to Petersburg, Sheridan's cavalry encounters resistance at Duguidsville, Virginia. Bragg attacks Cox's men outside of Kinston, North Carolina.

9 March 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Vermont ratifies the Thirteenth Amendment. John P. Usher resigns as Secretary of the Interior effective 15 May. Wade Hampton and Joseph Wheeler's cavalries surprise Judson Kilpatrick at Solemn Grove and Monroe's Cross Roads. The incident is known by some as "The Battle for Kilpatrick's Pants." In the end, the Union soldiers repulse them. Bragg and Cox continue battling outside Kinston. Cox's needed reinforcements arrive whereas Bragg's do not.

10 March 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Bragg withdraws his troops to Kinston, North Carolina to continue on to Goldsboro to join with Johnston's troops. Kilpatrick's men attack Southern cavalry of Hampton and drive them off. Lee urges that slave troops be used immediately to bolster the Confederate Army, but the House continues its debate.

11 March 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sheridan and his men arrive at Goochland Court House outside of Richmond. Sherman's men surround Fayetteville, North Carolina. There is fighting at the Little Blue River in Missouri and Washington, Arkansas.

12 March 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's troops destroy all of military value in Fayetteville. Grant orders Schofield's men to go to Goldsboro. There is fighting at Morganza Bend, Louisiana.

13 March 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Congress allows for the use of Negro troops in the Confederate army. Each state must decide whether the soldiers should be freed. Sheridan's cavalry skirmishes at Beaver Dam. In Fayetteville, the destruction continues.

14 March 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
En route to Petersburg, Sheridan's men fight at the South Anna Bridge in Virginia. In West Virginia, Union troops search for bands of Confederates. Cox's men arrive in Kinston and continue their railway repairs.

15 March 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman pulls out of Fayetteville and splits into three lines, one of which heads towards Raleigh. Johnston hopes to position himself north of Sherman's forces to prevent the Union troops from reuniting.

16 March 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Slocum's troops, moving towards Raleigh, encounter Hardee's troops near Averasborough, North Carolina. He withdraws that night and re-joins Johnston's forces in Bentonville.

17 March 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman's men draw closer to Goldsborough. General Edward R. Canby begins the mission to take Mobile, Alabama.

18 March 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Slocum's men and Hampton's cavalry skirmish near Bentonville. Union troops pretend to be attacking Mobile from the western side of the Bay.

19 March 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Having destroyed the Virginia Central Railroad and the James Canal, Sheridan's men arrive at White House on the Pamunkey River. Slocum and Hampton fight again near Bentonville. This time Joseph Johnston's men join the fray. Hearing of the battle, the remainder of Sherman's army turns westward. Schofield encounters resistance at the Neuse River Bridge and also near Cox's Bridge.

20 March 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The remainder of Sherman's forces arrive in Bentonville. There is skirmishing, but a full-scale battle does not break out. Destroying as they go, Stoneman and his cavalry move from Jonesborough in east Tennessee toward North Carolina.

21 March 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sherman attempts to cut off Johnston's forces from the rear. That night, Johnston withdraws to Smithfield. Today marks the last day of the battle of Bentonville, the last major North Carolina battle.

22 March 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Wilson's cavalry heads to Selma. Slocum's men move towards Goldsboro.

23 March 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln goes to City Point, Virginia to meet with Grant and Sherman. Sherman, Terry, and Schofield join in Goldsboro, North Carolina.

24 March 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Confederates prepare to attack Fort Steedman. Near Mobile, Canby moves towards Spanish Fort, on the eastern side of the bay.

25 March 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Gordon captures Fort Steedman, near Petersburg, early in the morning. By the end of the day, Union troops retake the fort. Canby and his men arrive at Spanish Fort.

26 March 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sheridan's cavalry rejoins Grant in Petersburg. Lee prepares to leave Petersburg. Union and Confederate forces clash at Spanish Fort outside Mobile.

27 March 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln meets with Grant, Sherman, and Admiral David Porter in City Point, Virginia.

28 March 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Union cavalry continues toward Selma and fights at Elyton. Leaving Tennessee, Stoneman fights in Snow Hill and Boone, North Carolina.

29 March 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Grant sends Sheridan to surround the Confederates to the southwest of Petersburg, and Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee attempt to block them. Stoneman's cavalry battles in Wilkesborough, North Carolina.

30 March 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Both sides amass troops southwest of Petersburg. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry pushes back Union troops at Five Forks. Forrest's cavalry fights Wilson's men at Montevallo, Alabama.

31 March 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sheridan and Warren's troops attack near White Oak Road and Dinwiddie Court House, southwest of Petersburg. For much of the day, the Confederates, eventhough outnumbered nearly five to one, hold them back. In the end, General Pickett pulls back to Five Forks. Wilson's men destry iron and coal works near Montevallo, Alabama.

1 April 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Sheridan's and Warren's forces take Five Forks and isolate Pickett's troops from the rest of the Southern forces. Parts of Sherman's forces battle Snow Hill, North Carolina. Fighting breaks out at Blakely near Mobile, Alabama. The U.S. cavalry continues its journey to Selma.

2 April 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lee warns Davis of the imminent fall of Petersburg and probable Union invasion of Richmond. Grant orders an assault on the Confederate siege lines. Union troops besiege Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, Confederate fortifications protecting Mobile. Union troops take Selma, Alabama.

3 April 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Richmond surrenders early that morning. The arsenal explodes, and Confederate troops set fire to the business district. Petersburg surrenders without such destruction. Davis and his cabinet arrive in Danville, Virginia. There is fighting outside Tuscaloosa, Alabama and at Mount Pleasant, Tennessee.

4 April 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln tours Richmond. Attempting to bolster the Confederacy, Davis urges a continuation of the struggle. The supplies needed for Lee's army don't arrive. In pursuit, Union troops battle Lee's forces at Tabernacle Church and Amelia Court House. Sheridan's troops arrive in Jetersville and trap Lee's troops between themselves and Meade's men.

5 April 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln and Confederate Assistant Secretary of War John Campbell meet to discuss peace. Lee and his forces retreat towards Farmville. They skirmish at Amelia Springs and Paine's Cross Roads.

6 April 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
At the battle of Saylor's Creek, the Confederates suffer devastating losses. In Alabama, Forrest and Wilson continue fighting.

7 April 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Grant asks Lee to surrender and Lee inquires into the terms. The U.S. and Britain open negotations over the C.S.S. Alabama incident.

8 April 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln returns to Washington. Lee and his staff decide to turn down surrender because of the "exchange" condition. They try to break through the Union lines. Outside of Mobile, Union troops take Spanish Fort and Fort Alexis.

9 April 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lee's troops surrender at Appomattox. Sherman and Lee work out the agreement in Appomattox Court House. The Confederates are to turn over all their munitions and supplies and to return home and not fight until a Union prisoner is exchanged for each one. Union troops capture Fort Blakely, which guards Mobile, Alabama.

10 April 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lee drafts an order disbanding the army of Northern Virginia. In Washington, news of the surrender reaches the city. The leaders of the Confederacy begin their trip to the more secure Greensborough, North Carolina. Sherman's forces move toward Johnston's near Raleigh, North Carolina.

11 April 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln gives his last speech to a crowd gathered outside the White House. He speaks about plans for reconstruction and the newly created state government in Louisiana. Davis and his cabinet arrive at Greensborough, North Carolina. Marching toward Raleigh, Sherman's men fight at Smithfield, Pikeville and Beulah, North Carolina. The Confederates surrender at Fort Hugar and Fort Tracy and evacuate Mobile.

12 April 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The city of Mobile surrenders to Union forces. At the Appomattox Court House, there is a formal surrender ceremony. Wilson's cavalry occupies Montgomery, Alabama while Sherman makes his way to Raleigh. Davis and Johnston meet to discuss the peace negotiations.

13 April 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln ceases the draft and further war supply requisitions. Sherman arrives in the North Carolina capital, Raleigh.

Barnard, Interior View of Fort Sumter14 April 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
While watching the play, Our American Cousin, at Ford's Theater, Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth. Soon after, martial law is declared. Booth, injured, and David Herold, a co-conspirator, flee the city. They arrive at the home Dr Samuel Mudd, who sets Booth's broken leg. In North Carolina, Confederate commander Joseph Johnston requests a temporary cessation of hostilities from Sherman to discuss a peace agreement. At Fort Sumter, the U.S. flag is once again raised.

15 April 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Around 7:30 a.m., Lincoln dies. At 11 that morning, Andrew Johnson assumes the presidency. Davis and his cabinet leave Greensborough, North Carolina. Fighting continues in West Virginia.

16 April 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
The Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, continues the manhunt by ordering all vessels in the Chesapeake Bay be searched. Booth and Herold arrive in Rich Hill, Maryland. Wilson's cavalry takes West Point and Columbus, Georgia. Skirmishing continues in Crawford and Opelika, Alabama.

17 April 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
To honor Lincoln, the Navy orders a gun fired every half hour from sunrise to sunset. His body is moved to the East Room of the White House to lie in state. Hoping to cross the Potomac into Virginia, Booth and Herold arrive in Port Tobacco. In Durham Station, North Carolina, Sherman and Johnston meet to discuss the surrender of all Confederate forces east of the Mississippi.

18 April 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Generals Sherman and Johnston meet again and sign a controversial peace agreement. It would provide amnesty for all Confederates, recognition of the current state governments after officials had taken a pledge of allegiance, and an end to the fighting. Both governments still need to ratify the settlement.

19 April 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln's funeral services take place in the East Room of the White House. The casket is moved to the Capitol rotunda for viewing. In Charlotte, North Carolina, the Confederate cabinet learn of Lincoln's assassination. General Wade Hampton advises Davis to flee across the Mississippi and continue the fighting west of the Mississippi whereas General John Pope urges Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith to surrender all their troops west of the Mississippi on Lee's terms.

20 April 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lee advises Davis to end Confederate fighting. Wilson's cavalry takes Macon. Arkansas ratifies the thirteenth amendment outlawing slavery.

21 April 1865 (Friday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Lincoln's funeral train begins its journey. Its ultimate destination is Springfield, Illinois. John S. Mosby, known as the Gray Ghost, disbands his troops.

22 April 1865 (Saturday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
After hiding out for several days, Booth and Herold escape Washington by boat. Wilson's cavalry captures Talledega, Alabama. Lincoln's body reaches Philadelphia.

23 April 1865 (Sunday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles orders all Mississippi River vessels be searched for Jefferson Davis. Cavalry troops skirmish near Henderson, North Carolina and at Munford's Station, Alabama.

24 April 1865 (Monday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Federal troops continue their hunt for the conspirators in Lincoln's assassination. Booth and Herold arrive at Port Conway, Virginia. Lincoln's body lies in state in New York President Johnson refuses the terms of surrender proposed for Johnston. They must unconditionally surrender within 48 hours or face further retaliation.

25 April 1865 (Tuesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Booth and Herold are traced to the farm of Richard H Garrett, south of the Rappahannock River in Virginia. Johnston and Sherman renew their peace talks. Lincoln's funeral train contines its journey through Washington on its way to Springfield, Illinois and is met by vast crowds.

26 April 1865 (Wednesday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Herold surrenders as Union soldiers surround the barn in which he and Booth are hiding. In an attempt to flush out Booth, the soldiers set fire to the barn. He is shot and dragged from the barn. He dies soon after. The Confederate cabinet members meet in Charlotte, North Carolina and plan to flee across the Mississippi. Confederate Attorney General George Davis returns home instead. Agreeing to the same terms as Lee, General Johnston and his troops surrender in North Carolina.

27 April 1865 (Thursday) [View Platter's entry for the day]
Approximately 1400 former Union prisoners die as the steamer Sultana blows up. Confederate Treasury Secretary, G.A. Trenholm resigns. The body of Booth is autopsied and positively identified on the U.S.S. Montauk. He is later interred at the Washington Artillery. On the boat, other conspirators including David E. Herold are imprisoned.

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Digital Library of Georgia | GALILEO

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