Digital Library of Georgia > Samuel Hugh Hawkins Diary, January - July 1877

Samuel H. Hawkins Diary
Players and Places

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Adams, A. A. (Asbury Arnold), 1828-1889
Captain. During the Civil War, Adams serves in the Home Guard of Americus. Hawkins reveals that Adams is a delegate of the Agricultural Society of Sumter County to the 1877 Agricultural Convention at Milledgeville, and that at one session of the Society, Adams reads an article on raising stock. Over the years, Adams and his family occupy several grand homes in Americus, including the Barlow-Littlejohn House, the ownership of which Adams transfers to William W. Barlow to satisfy partially Adams' default on a loan of $9,000.

Adams Place
A property owned by the Bank of Americus, located near Americus. Hawkins relates that John L. Matthews and Y. A. Herndon spend the night at his house after a visit to the Adams place.

Adderton, John L.
Captain, Tenth Battalion, Georgia Volunteers, Company E. The Tenth Battalion, Georgia Volunteers, is organized March 17, 1862 with four companies. On July 17th, a fifth company is formed, the Granbery Guards of Americus, and John L. Adderton is elected captain. In 1865 after the war, Adderton is elected judge of the Inferior Court. In 1877, Hawkins witnesses a test of the Bell Cultivator at Adderton's farm and mentions that Adderton is one of the delegates of the militia district to the Sumter County convention. In 1890, Adderton serves on the planning committee for a three-story, combined city hall and fire station.

Albany (Ga.)
The county seat of Dougherty County, the city of Albany is founded in 1836 by Nelson Tift who hopes that the settlement's river location will lead it to become a trade center like Albany, New York. During the mid-1800s, Albany grows to incorporate several plantations in the area. During the Civil War, the large plantations of Albany provide cotton and desperately needed food for the Confederacy. While steamboat navigation proves irregular due to low water and sand bars, Albany becomes a rail center by the turn of the century. Albany's Union Station unites seven railroads that serve as many as fifty-five trains daily. Samuel Hawkins mentions that he meets several residents from Albany at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville.

Alexander, John R.
A judge from Thomasville whom Hawkins meets at the Thomasville Fair. In 1871, John R. Alexander is listed as the judge for the southern circuit, which covers Berrien, Brooks, Colquitt, Lowndes, and Thomas Counties. A J. R. Alexander is given as a member of the Thomasville bar by 1860 and is one of three men selected to represent Thomas County at the Constitutional Convention.

Allen, J. H. (Joseph Henry), 1833-1901
Joseph H. Allen enlists as a private in the Americus Volunteer Rifles on June 11, 1861. He is promoted to 1st sergeant in May 1864 and elected 1st lieutenant in October 1864. Allen surrenders at Appomattox, Virginia, April 9, 1865. After the war, he marries Annie A. Stanford in 1865. Hawkins reports that Allen won the election for county clerk in 1877. Allen is reelected in 1879.

Americus (Ga.)
Founded in 1832, Americus is the seat of Sumter County. The name Americus is the masculine version of America. Americus is a major center in its early days and the site of three hospitals for Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. Habitat for Humanity, a non-profit organization dedicated to eliminating substandard housing around the world, is headquartered in Americus, which is also home to Georgia Southwestern State University and South Georgia Technical Institute. In 1877, there are about 3,500 people living in Americus; in 2000, there are just over 17,000.

Americus Bar Association
Samuel Hawkins refers to his fellow lawyers as "the bar." Before beginning practice as a lawyer, then as now, one has to pass the bar exam. During the 1870s, the bar exam is given orally, usually by a district court judge. The tests are not always consistent and standardized, as the judges sometimes place as much emphasis on personal character as they do on knowledge of the law. Lawyers in the 1870s taok on many tasks in addition to court work, including land sales, drawing up contracts and documents as a notary public, and will and probate work. A lawyer may additionally collect rents and oversee debt collection, bill collection, and land tax collection. The Americus Bar Association also addresses matters of legal importance to the community such as grievances against attorneys and ethical issues. Hawkins notes that members of the bar attend the funeral of Superior Court Judge James M. Clarke and subsequently leave for Atlanta to secure the appointment of a new Superior Court judge.

Americus Fair Association
Inspired by the Thomasville Fair, Samuel Hawkins procures an order from the judge of the Superior Court of Sumter County chartering the Americus Fair Association on April 17th, 1877. On May 15th, the conservators of the Americus Fair Association elect Hawkins president, A. C. Bell secretary, and A. J. Buchanan treasurer. On May 30th, Hawkins, A. K. Schumpert and J. W. Jordan, Jr. develop a plan to sell subscriptions to the Americus Fair Association. The executive committee meets and adopts a circular advertisement. The city council appoints Hawkins to review and report on possible locations for the park and fairgrounds. At first it is thought that the city council will pay part of the cost of a park and fairground, but they revoke their support on June 11th. Hawkins and several associates commence taking subscription notes or stock notes to the Americus Fair Association, payable October 1st, and raise $870 the first day. By June 15th, they raise $3,200. Hawkins' efforts are presumably successful because the Americus Fair Association holds its third annual exhibition in October 1879. The president of the Association in 1879 is John A. Cobb. Featured attractions include bazaars, a driving contest, a trotting race, and an elegant ball at the Barlow House.

Americus (Ga.). City Council
Samuel Hawkins mentions that the mayor and city council of Americus have authorized him to extend an invitation to host the 1878 meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society. Later he chronicles his attempts to win the city council's support of and contribution to the purchase of a park and fairground for Americus. The city council ultimately withdraws its offer of partial funding for the park and fairground, forcing Hawkins to raise money through the sale of stock in the Americus Fair Association.

Americus Library Association
In Americus through the Years, William Bailey Williford places the origin of the Americus Library Association in January 1878. However, Samuel Hawkins reveals that the Library Association actually begins in, or prior to, 1877. Williford reports that the first meeting takes place in the law office of Merrel Callaway. A constitution and by-laws are submitted at the second meeting, providing for a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and nine directors to serve for one year. The initiation fee is five dollars, and quarterly dues are one dollar. Privileges are initially restricted to members and their invited guests, but the intention of the founders is eventually to make the library public. M. Speer provides rent-free quarters for the library for one year. General Philip Cook donates the first large contribution, consisting of one hundred and fifty volumes of miscellaneous works. By May 23rd, 1877, Hawkins reports there are over 1,600 volumes in the Library as well as a small museum.

Ansley, J. A.
Judge Ansley is president of the Sumter County Bible Society in 1876. Hawkins reports that Ansley is elected to represent the militia district at the county convention and that Ansley runs against B. P. Hollis and Charles F. Crisp for Southwestern Judicial Circuit judge in 1877. Ansley loses to Crisp, but finally is elected judge of the Southwestern Judicial Circuit in 1882.

Athens (Ga.)
Incorporated in 1806 as the county seat of Clarke County, Athens is the county seat of Clarke County and lies in the red clay piedmont of the Blue Ridge Mountains near the confluence of the North and Middle Oconee Rivers. The University of Georgia commences its first classes there in 1801, and the city is named in honor of the classical center of higher learning. As Athens assumes the role of intellectual center of Georgia, the city attracts prominent families of wealth and national stature. Industry flourishes and encompasses cotton, brick works, textile mills, and railroad transportation. Athens takes an early role in agricultural science as well. Samuel Hawkins reports that Dr. W. L. Jones from Athens, Ga. reads an essay at the Georgia State Agricultural Society's convention in Milledgeville, Ga. in April of 1877. The essay is titled "A Farmer -- What Should He Be?" and concludes with the assertion that agricultural colleges should focus on agricultural science and the application of scientific principles.

Atlanta (Ga.)
The town at the southern end of the Western and Atlantic Railroad is named Marthasville in 1843 for Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin's daughter. Marthasville is renamed Atlanta in 1844, and by 1847 Atlanta is incorporated as a city. In 1854, Atlanta becomes the seat of the newly organized Fulton County. After the Civil War in 1868, Atlanta replaces Milledgeville as the capital of Georgia. Hawkins reports that several members of the bar leave for Atlanta to secure the appointment of a replacement judge for the Southwestern Judicial Circuit. The contest in 1877, to be decided by the Georgia legislature, is between Charles F. Crisp, B. P. Hollis, and J. A. Ansley.

Augusta (Ga.)
Augusta is established in 1735 under orders of Savannah, Ga. founder, British General James Edward Oglethorpe. Noble Jones directs the building of the new settlement on the riverbank flatlands of the Savannah River at the fall line that separates the Appalachian plateau from the Atlantic coastal plain. The purpose of the new settlement is to defend Savannah from the French and Spanish and to provide access to fur trading routes. Oglethorpe names the town in honor of Princess Augusta, the wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales. A Revolutionary War battle site, Augusta becomes Georgia's eighteenth-century tobacco trading center and serves as the capital of Georgia after the Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Augusta becomes a major cotton market, an important Southern manufacturing center, and the site of the Confederate Powder Works. Since 1934, Augusta has hosted the Masters Tournament at the Augusta National Golf Club. The Augusta National Golf Club is located on the site of Fruitlands Nurseries, which P. J. Berckmans started in 1857. Samuel Hawkins reports that Berckmans of Augusta reads an essay at the Georgia Agricultural Society's April 1877 convention in Milledgeville, Ga. The essay concerns "Cow Peas" and advocates them as forage for stock, a milk-producing agent, a soil renovator, and a winter food to increase winter manure production.

Avery Walking Cultivator
Hawkins notes that Graham is the first to offer the Avery Walking Cultivator for sale in Americus, in April, 1877. -- See B. F. Avery & Sons.

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Bank of Americus
The Bank of Americus is organized in 1872 by Samuel H. Hawkins and a group of associates with a capitalization of $150,000. Hawkins is named president, and the Board of Directors is composed of Dr. W. W. Barlow, Colonel W. T. Davenport, William W. Hooks, and J. W. Furlow, in addition to the president. The Bank of Americus ultimately fails in 1893, from the effect of the depressed economy on its major investment, the Savannah, Americus and Montgomery Railway. The 1893 Board of Directors includes Samuel H. Hawkins, president, Thornton Wheatley, vice president, M. B. Campbell, cashier, P. C. Clegg, G. W. Glover, Seab Montgomery, James Dodson, and J. W. Sheffield.

Bank of Americus. Board of Directors
When the Bank of Americus is organized in 1872, Samuel Hawkins is named president, and the Board of Directors is composed of Dr. W. W. Barlow, Colonel W. T. Davenport, William W. Hooks, and J. W. Furlow, in addition to the president. When the bank fails in 1893, the Board of Directors includes Samuel H. Hawkins, president, Thornton Wheatley, vice president, M. B. Campbell, cashier, P. C. Clegg, G. W. Glover, Seab Montgomery, James Dodson, and J. W. Sheffield.

Barlow, William W., 1811-1879
Born in South Carolina on September 24, 1811, Dr. Barlow resides in Americus for more than forty years. One of the original settlers of Sumter County, Barlow serves as its representative to the Georgia legislature from 1851 to 1852. A successful businessman, who is also regarded as a conscientious physician, he amasses great wealth and extensive holdings. He acquires the Barlow-Littlejohn house from Asbury Arnold Adams in 1873. During the Civil War, Barlow serves in the Home Guard. He is one of three delegates from Sumter County to the 1865 state convention at Milledgeville that repeals the Ordinance of Secession, formally abolishes slavery, and repudiates the state's war debt, which renders Confederate bonds and currency worthless. Barlow is an original director of the Bank of Americus, formed in 1872. Barlow's first wife, the former Amanda Allen, dies in 1859. Barlow's second wife, Mrs. Elizabeth (Jarratt) Gaither, is his only survivor when he dies at his Taylor Street residence on January 7, 1879.

Barnett, Samuel, of Wilkes County, Ga.
A resident of Wilkes County, Ga., Barnett is a trustee of the Washington Presbyterian Church in 1825. He directs the Washington Female Seminary after 1841. Barnett is chosen for a twelve-member committee charged with preparing Wilkes County for the Civil War. He actively promotes secession and later publicly affirms Georgia's decision to secede from the Union. During the Civil War, Barnett serves as an elder in the Presbyterian Church and dispenses salt locally from his Georgia Salt Manufacturing Company. After the Civil War, Barnett works as an attorney. His private grove is the site of several public meetings, including a mass meeting of local Democrats in 1868. The Grove School for Boys and Girls is located on the premises of his home. Barnett serves as the commissioner of the Georgia State Agricultural Society. Samuel Hawkins reports that Colonel Samuel Barnett gives an interesting address, "Does Farming Pay?" at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville. Minutes of the meeting note that though Barnett's address is one of the most instructive ever presented to the Society, the reporter fails to capture it because he assumes it is written. From poor health and lack of time, Colonel Barnett does not write it out. Barnett is also Georgia's first Commissioner of Railroads. In 1889, Barnett serves as a trustee of the Washington Public Library and selects the books for it.

Bell, A. C. (Alfred Colquitt), b. 1838
A. C. Bell is a descendant of Thomas Bell, a Revolutionary War soldier from Iredell, North Carolina. Thomas Bell's grandsons move to Lee County in 1827 when the Creek lands are ceded to Georgia. A.C. Bell moves to Americus and marries Susan Snelling. He becomes prominent in banking, farming, and business. He serves as a captain in the Confederate Army and is highly admired after the Civil War. When Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President in 1877, he appoints Captain Bell as postmaster in Americus. During his tenure of office, Bell establishes a daily mail route between Americus and Buena Vista via Ellaville. According to Samuel Hawkins, Bell is elected president of the First National Bank of Americus in January 1877. Bell also serves as a temporary secretary for the Americus Fair Association.

Bell Cultivator
The Bell Cultivator may be a product of the company or descendants of Reverend Patrick Bell of Scotland, who produces the first successful nineteenth century reaper in 1826. The Agricultural Society of Scotland awards Bell a premium, but he refuses to patent the reaper because he intends his invention to be of general benefit. After importing four of the machines, America becomes home to further development of reaping machines. Samuel Hawkins mentions testing the Bell Cultivator before buying the patent right with Buchanan & Brothers to rend and distribute the cultivator in the counties of Schley, Dooly, Macon, Lee and Sumter.

Berckmans, Prosper Julius Alphonso, 1830-1910
Born near Brussels, Belgium in 1829, Berckmans spends his childhood on the estates of his father, Dr. Louis Berckmans, who is a noted horticulturist. After attending school in France, Berckmans returns to Belgium in 1847 to work on his fatherís estates and study botany at the Botanical Gardens of Brussels. In 1850, Berckmans comes to the United States and in 1857 establishes the Fruitland Nurseries near Augusta, Georgia. Berckmans imports seeds, cuttings, and plants and grows many different kinds of camellias and other plants suited to the Georgia climate. He becomes a life member of the American Pomological Society in 1860 and is elected president in 1887. He founds the Georgia State Horticultural Society in 1876 and serves as its president until his death. From 1883 to 1884 he travels to Europe on U. S. government business collecting horticultural exhibits for the New Orleans Exposition of 1884-1885. The editor of Farmer and Gardener for several years, he retires in 1907. Samuel Hawkins mentions that Berckmans gives a talk on cow peas at the spring meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society, but misspells his name 'Bircksman.'

Bethel Baptist Church (Americus, Ga.)
Samuel Hawkins' church is Bethel Baptist. The name changes to Americus Baptist in 1882. In 1884, the building is destroyed in a fire. A church committee, of which Hawkins is a member, directs the building of the new brick church finished in 1890.

Bethel Baptist Church (Americus, Ga.). Conference
Samuel Hawkins notes several Sunday Conferences held to make decisions for the Baptist Church. He mentions that the Conference adopts a resolution of committee regarding Reverend A. B. Campbell, but the content of the resolution remains a mystery. Hawkins reports that at another Conference, James B. Durin is elected clerk and Henry T. Davenport is elected treasurer for the next month. Hawkins does not give details about the other two Conferences he mentions.

Bethel Baptist Church (Americus, Ga.). Finance Committee
Samuel Hawkins mentions meetings of the Finance Committee of Bethel Baptist Church. Early in 1877, Hawkins notes that the committee forms a resolution with regard to Reverend A. B. Campbell. Hawkins lists the participants of one meeting as J. A. Kendrick, J. W. Wheatley, Merrel Callaway, Henry T. Davenport, and himself.

B.F. Avery & Sons
Benjamin Franklin Avery founds a plow factory near Clarkesville, Virginia in 1825 and moves the company to Louisville, Kentucky in 1845. Avery distributes plows worldwide, and by the late 1800s, the B.F. Avery Company is the largest plow manufacturer in the world. Samuel Hawkins reports that Graham offers the Avery Walking Cultivator for sale for the first time in Americus in April 1877.

Black, J. H. (J. Harper)
In 1876, Black is one of the delegates appointed by the Democratic Party of Sumter to the Third Congressional District convention in Macon where delegates to the National Democratic Convention in St. Louis are to be chosen. Black accompanies Samuel Hawkins to the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville. Hawkins reports that Black tries unsuccessfully to convince Hawkins to be a candidate for the Constitutional Convention. Black and Hawkins witness a demonstration of the Bell Cultivator together. Hawkins reports that Black reads an essay on crop rotation at a meeting of the Sumter County Agricultural Society. When the new courthouse is erected in 1887, Black is president of the County Commission.

Brooks, Freddie
Samuel Hawkins mentions Brooks as a fellow traveler on a Sunday school excursion to Macon and to the Thomasville Fair.

Brown, G. A.
Samuel Hawkins reports that G. A. Brown wins the election for Sumter County ordinary in 1877. Hawkins mentions spending the night with Brown on his way back from a business trip to Dooly County and indicates that Brown lives just across the Flint River from Dooly County. Hawkins relates that before returning to Americus the next afternoon, he and Brown go fishing.

Brown Hotel (Macon, Ga.)
The Brown House is a hotel in Macon, well-known since the 1850s. Samuel Hawkins mentions that he stays in the Brown Hotel on his way to the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville in 1877.

Buchanan, A. J.
The Constitutional Convention in Atlanta from December 1867 through March 1868 provides a new state constitution, moves the capital of Georgia from Milledgeville to Atlanta, abolishes the Inferior Courts, and provides for free education for all children in Georgia. In addition, around a hundred leading figures from Americus sign a petition arguing that the freight and passenger tariffs imposed by the Central Rail Road and Banking Company of Georgia, which controls rail access to Americus, are unjust. A. J. Buchanan's signature is first on the petition, which unsuccessfully implores the legislature to create a state regulatory agency. According to Samuel Hawkins, A. J. Buchanan serves as the temporary treasurer for the Americus Fair Association.

Buchanan & Brothers
Buchanan & Brothers partners with Samuel Hawkins to produce the Bell Cultivator and distribute it in the counties of Schley, Macon, Sumter, Dooly, and Lee. Buchanan & Brothers may be the predecessor of the Buchanan Hardware Company, which ultimately meets its demise in the 1960s.

Buchanan, J. B.
Samuel Hawkins relates that he meets Buchanan at the Thomasville Fair and notes that Buchanan is a former resident of Thomasville.

Byrd, R. T.
According to Samuel Hawkins, Byrd is a director of the First National Bank of Americus. His name is left off the ballot when new officers are elected in 1877.

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Callaway, Merrel, ca. 1840-1911
A prominent lawyer in Americus, Callaway grows up in Washington in Wilkes County and graduates from Mercer University in 1862. On a visit to Americus during the Civil War, he meets Colonel T. M. Furlow's daughter, Kate, and the two soon marry. When the General Assembly of Georgia authorizes in 1873 the establishment of a public school system in Georgia, Callaway is a charter member of the board of education. The first meeting of the Americus Library Association is held in Callaway's law office, probably in January 1877. In 1879, Callaway establishes the Americus Recorder, a tri-weekly newspaper, to compete with The Sumter Republican. Callaway publishes the paper with the assistance of J. R. Christian. Two years later, Callaway sells the paper to William L. Glessener and concentrates on his law practice. Callaway arranges for Samuel Hawkins to trade for part of T. M. Furlow's farm. Hawkins mentions that Callaway is also a member of the Finance Committee of the Baptist Church.

Camilla (Ga.)
The town of Camilla, named after the granddaughter of Revolutionary War General Henry Mitchell, is incorporated as the county seat of Mitchell County on December 14, 1858. Samuel Hawkins notes that, on the way from Thomasville to Americus following the Thomasville Fair, he intends to eat breakfast in Camilla, but indicates there are too many people with the same idea.

Campbell, A. B., Rev.
Rev. Dr. Campbell is the pastor of the Bethel Baptist Church in 1874 when it moves to a new building. He continues as pastor until 1876, when he is succeeded by Dr. George F. Cooper. Probably refering to Cooper's succession, Hawkins mentions that the Baptist Conference adopts a resolution of Committee in reference to A. B. Campbell. The Baptist Church is destroyed by fire in 1884, and Campbell is a member of the committee directing the completion of the new church in 1890.

Carraway, James
On April 16, 1877, Samuel Hawkins reports that Carraway's wife is killed, allegedly by Charley Thomas, an African American. The Carraways are residents of Sumter County. Thomas receives a swift conviction and is sentenced to hang.

Carraway, James, Mrs., d. 1877
Samuel Hawkins reports the murder of Mrs. Carraway, allegedly by Charley Thomas, an African American. The Carraways are residents of Sumter County. Thomas receives a swift conviction and is sentenced to hang.

Central Rail Road and Banking Company of Georgia
The Central of Georgia route runs between Smithville, Ga. and Eufaula, Ala. The line is constructed by the Southwestern Railroad Company in 1860, and in 1869, the Southwestern Railroad Company leases its lines to the Central Rail Road and Banking Company of Georgia. Around 1880, Samuel Hawkins begins to attack the Central Rail Road and Banking Company for its high rates, which are hurting the cotton farmers in Americus. His criticism is not new; at the Constitutional Convention in Atlanta from December 1867 through March 1868, a petition signed by around a hundred leading figures from Americus argues that the freight and passenger tariffs imposed by the Central Rail Road and Banking Company of Georgia, which controls rail access to Americus, are unjust and that a regulatory agency is needed. When Hawkins again advocates the establishment of a state regulatory commission to oversee shipping charges, the Central retaliates by replacing the name of Americus on its system maps with 'Way Station No. 9.'

Chappell, Alexander
Samuel Hawkins mentions that Chappell stays with him overnight on two occasions, the second time with family in tow. Hawkins does not reveal where Chappell lives; however, the Weekly Sumter Republican reports that an Alexander Chappell, a member of the Americus Fair Association, resides in Webster.

Christian, T. T. (Thomas T.)
Reverend Christian is a Methodist minister. Hawkins relates that Reverend T. T. Christian conducts the graveside service at the funeral of Reverend Dr. George F. Cooper's wife.

Clark, C. C.
Samuel Hawkins mentions spending the night with Clark while on a business trip to Dooly County.

Clarke, James M., 1822-1877
Born in Putnam County, Clarke reads law under the tutelage of his uncle, Judge James Clarke, and practices law in Lumpkin, Albany, and Buena Vista. He manages the Lumpkin agency of the Mechanics & Savings Bank of Savannah. Clarke is elected to the legislature in 1854, serves as a delegate to the National Democratic Convention in Charleston in 1860, and is an aide to Governor Brown during the Civil War. In 1866, he moves to Americus to practice law. In 1868, he is chosen to be judge of the Southwestern Judicial Circuit and is reappointed shortly before his death. Samuel Hawkins records that Judge Clarke issues him an injunction to restrain the shipment of goods belonging to Hawkins' tenant, who owes him money. Hawkins later relates the reappointment of Judge Clarke as judge of the Southwestern Circuit in January 1877. When Judge Clarke falls ill, Hawkins visits him to cheer him up and sends him fruit. Hawkins records Clarke's death in June.

Clarke, Mary Margaret Williams
Judge James M. Clarke is survived by his wife, the former Mary Margaret Williams of Stewart County.

Clay, Clifford C.
Samuel Hawkins reports that Clay is in charge of the Huguenin places for the Bank of Americus. Clay is on the committee that organizes the ball at the Barlow House for the third annual exhibition of the Americus Fair in 1879. Clay's wife is the former Mary Bryan.

Cobb, John Addison
Lamar Cobb, brother of Georgia Governor Howell Cobb, is in charge of the seven Lamar and Cobb plantations, including over 800 slaves. When Lamar Cobb is killed in the Civil War, the plantations are left in the charge of Captain John A. Cobb, son of Howell Cobb, who has been Lamar's apprentice. Captain Cobb is released from the army to assume management of the properties. During the Civil War, Cobb successfully defends himself from Confederate authorities who try to tax him for storage of corn they have already purchased from him. Samuel Hawkins records that Cobb is president of the Sumter County Agricultural Society in 1877. Cobb is president of the Americus Fair Association in 1879. In 1880, he is a delegate from Sumter County to the gubernatorial convention. Captain Cobb apparently has a flair for the dramatic because each year he parades through Americus his entire cotton crop, loaded on thirty to forty wagons, preceded by a brass band. He follows the parade on a white charger with a gilded harness. Cobb is a county commissioner in 1887. Though highly esteemed, Captain Cobb fails in his bids for postmaster in 1891 and mayor in 1892. He is, however, elected to the office of ordinary of Sumter County in 1905 and to the presidency of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in 1914. In 1908, Cobb is a director of the Carnegie Library Association, organized to expand the Americus Library with a $20,000 donation from steel tycoon, Andrew Carnegie. In 1924, as ordinary of Sumter County, Captain Cobb reports, with regret, a decrease in marriages from the previous year. He attributes the decrease to "bashful swains who relied too confidently upon the exercise of the quadrennial privilege by marriageable maidens during leap year."

Colquitt, Alfred Holt, 1824-1894
Holt serves as a United States Democratic representative and senator. After graduating from Princeton in 1844, Holt studies law, is admitted to the bar in 1846, and begins practicing law in his hometown of Monroe, Ga. During the Mexican War, Holt serves as a staff officer with the rank of major. Afterward, he is elected to the Thirty-third Congress from 1853 to 1855. A member of the Georgia House of Representatives in 1859 and a member of the secession convention in 1861, Holt serves in the Confederate Army throughout the Civil War, commands Colquitt's Brigade, and ultimately achieves the rank of major general. He serves as governor of Georgia from 1876 to 1882, after which he serves in the United States Senate until his death in Washington, D.C. Colquitt is buried in Rose Hill Cemetery in Macon, Ga.

Columbia (S.C.)
Located in Richland County in western central South Carolina along the Congaree River, the city is capital of the state, county seat, and judicial seat and is served by the Charlotte and South Carolina and South Carolina rail lines. Samuel Hawkins relates that the South is grateful when President Hayes removes Federal troops from Columbia in 1877, essentially ending the dispute over ballot counting in the South Carolina gubernatorial election and handing the governorship to Wade Hampton.

Coneson, Rev.
Hawkins mentions that he attends a lecture by Reverend Coneson of Tennessee and buys a revision of the New Testament and Genesis from him.

Cook, Philip, 1817-1894
General Cook is an early resident of Oglethorpe who later moves south to Americus. Born in Twiggs County, Cook serves in the Seminole War of 1836 as a young man. He attends Oglethorpe University and studies law at the University of Virginia. Cook practices law first in Forsyth and later in Oglethorpe, lives for a time in Lanier, and serves as state senator from Macon County before enlisting as a private at the beginning of the Civil War. He earns a battlefield commission and advances rapidly, ultimately attaining the rank of brigadier general on August 5, 1864, and assuming command of the Doles-Cook Brigade. After the Civil War, General Cook moves to his plantation in Lee County and later opens a law practice in Americus. During Federal occupation, Cook participates in hunger relief efforts to alleviate the suffering of the near destitute. In 1873, Cook is elected to Congress and is reelected for four additional terms. Samuel Hawkins writes that General Cook speaks in favor of the Constitutional Convention in 1877. After living in Americus for ten years, Cook turns his law practice over to his younger partner, Charles F. Crisp, and returns to his plantation. In 1882, he is one of five commissioners appointed to superintend the erection of the present state capitol. In 1890, Governor John B. Gordon appoints General Cook Secretary of State, and Cook is reelected Secretary of State in 1892.

Cooper, George
The son of Dr. George F. Cooper, George is probably about the same age as Samuel Hawkins' son, Willie. Hawkins relates that George convinces Willie to join the Bethel Baptist Church.

Cooper, George F., 1825-1882
A distinguished physician, preacher, and educator, Dr. Cooper is born in Wilkes County. After graduating from the Medical College of Philadelphia in 1845, he moves to Americus to practice medicine. Cooper begins preaching in 1856 and spends five years in other communities. During the Civil War, he is senior surgeon of General A. R. Lawton's brigade. In 1866, he returns to Americus as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church, a position he holds until 1879, except for a brief period as a private physician from 1875 to 1876. In 1879, he resigns his pastorate to practice medicine. Cooper is the first president of the board of education and is regarded as the father of the Americus public school system. Samuel Hawkins records the death of Dr. Cooper's wife, the former Cornelia I. Statley of Perry. In 1878, Cooper marries the former Carrie M. Kendrick, daughter of Professor A. C. Kendrick of Rochester University and niece of Judson A. and Adolph D. Kendrick of Americus. Cooper is survived by his second wife and six children.

Cooper, Cornelia I. Statley, d. 1877
Samuel Hawkins records the death of Dr. George F. Cooper's wife, the former Cornelia I. Statley of Perry.

Corley, J. H., Rev.
In 1875, Reverend J. H. Corley, a resident of Dawson, the county seat of Terrell County, gives the dedication sermon at the Weston Baptist Church in Webster County, Ga. Samuel Hawkins notes that Reverend Corley is visiting Americus around the time of the illness and death of Mrs. George F. Cooper. Hawkins relates that Corley preaches a fine sermon on the Resurrection at Mrs. Cooper's funeral.

Cox, Samuel Sullivan, 1824-1889
Samuel Sullivan Cox is a United States representative from Ohio and from New York. Born in Zanesville, Muskingum County, Ohio, Cox attends the Ohio University at Athens and graduates from Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island in 1846. Cox studies law, is admitted to the bar, and commences practice in Zanesville in 1849. He is the owner and editor of the Columbus Statesman from 1853 to 1854 and then serves as secretary of the legation at Lima, Peru in 1855. Cox is elected as a Democrat from Ohio to the Thirty-fifth Congress and serves four terms before losing the election in 1864. He moves to New York City in 1865, resumes the practice of law, and runs again for a seat in Congress. Cox is elected from New York to the Forty-first and Forty-second Congresses (1869-1873). He is unsuccessful in his bid for reelection in 1872 as representative at large to the Forty-third Congress, but is elected to the Forty-third Congress to fill the vacancy left by the death of James Brooks. He is reelected to the Forty-fourth Congress and serves six terms in succession from 1873 to 1885, when he resigns to accept a diplomatic position. Cox is elected speaker pro tempore of the House on February 17, May 12, and June 19, 1876, and appointed to that office on May 1 and June 7, 1876. In 1885, Cox is appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Turkey by President Cleveland and serves until 1886, when he resigns. Later Cox is elected to the Forty-ninth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Joseph Pulitzer and serves three terms, from 1886 until his death in New York City. Samuel Hawkins relates that Cox speaks on the subject "The Irish Humor" in Americus in March 1877 to benefit the Wide Awake Fire Company.

Cozart, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins mentions purchasing two Berkshire pigs from Cozart of East Tennessee.

Crisp, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1845-1896
Lieutenant, Tenth Virginia Infantry Regiment, Company K. A United States Representative from Georgia, Crisp is Speaker of the House during the 52nd and 53rd Congresses. The year Crisp is born in Sheffield, England, his parents immigrate to the United States and settle in Georgia. Crisp enters the Confederate Army in May 1861, and is commissioned a lieutenant, serving the Tenth Virginia Infantry until captured May 12, 1864. He is a prisoner of war at Fort Delaware until 1865, when he joins his parents at Ellaville in Schley County, Ga. Crisp studies law at Americus, Ga., is admitted to the bar in 1866, and commences practice in Ellaville. In June 1877, the Georgia Assembly appoints him Judge of the Superior Court of the Southwestern Judicial Circuit. Crisp is elected by the General Assembly to the same office in 1878, and is reelected judge for a term of four years in 1880. In 1882, he resigns his office to accept the Democratic nomination for Congress. He serves as a Representative from Georgia from 1883 until his death. Samuel Hawkins favors B.P. Hollis over Crisp for Superior Court judge of the Southwestern Judicial Circuit, but seems to feel Crisp will be adequate.

Cutts, Allen S. (Allen Sherod), 1826-1896
Colonel, Eleventh Battalion, Georgia Volunteers. Born in Pulaski County, Colonel Cutts is a resident of Oglethorpe who later moves to Americus. After a common school education, he serves three years in the regular Army of the United States, two of them in Mexico. From 1851 to 1854, Cutts is a merchant in Oglethorpe, Ga., and he continues in the mercantile business after he moves to Americus. Cutts buys a large plantation and becomes one of the biggest cotton dealers in Americus. Additionally, he serves as sheriff of Sumter County. Cutts teams with T. M. Furlow and W. A. Hawkins to raise money for the Furlow Masonic Female College, which is established in 1859. As a captain in the Civil War, Cutts organizes the volunteer company known as Cutts' Artillery. In the spring of 1862, Captain Cutts is authorized to increase his command from a company to a battalion. He recruits three more companies in Sumter County. In addition, Company A of the Ninth Regiment of Georgia volunteers, an artillery company, is assigned to Cutts' battalion, giving it five companies in all. Illness, death and discharge reduce the battalion to four companies. Cutts is elected major and soon promoted to lieutenant colonel. A few months later, Cutts is promoted to colonel. Cutts bravely fights in many dire battles with his troops, at times outnumbered and unsupported. After the war, Colonel Cutts is a delegate to the state convention in Milledgeville in October and November of 1865, which repeals the Ordinance of Secession, formally abolishes slavery, and repudiates the state's war debt. During Federal occupation, Cutts participates in hunger relief efforts to alleviate the suffering of the near destitute. In 1872, Cutts is elected mayor of Americus. He is a charter member of the Americus Board of Education in 1873. In 1892, Colonel Cutts beats Captain John A. Cobb by a slim margin to become mayor of Americus again. Samuel Hawkins relates that Colonel Cutts tries to get him to be a candidate for the Constitutional Convention, but Hawkins does not consent.

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Daniel, J. A. (James A.)
Samuel Hawkins records that James A. Daniel wins the election for county tax receiver in 1877. Americus through the Years reports that he serves again as tax receiver in 1879, but lists his name as James A. Daniels.

Dawson (Ga.)
The county seat of Terrell County, Dawson lies in the heartland of Southwest Georgia. Dawson is located twenty-two miles west of Albany and 160 miles south of Atlanta. Samuel Hawkins notes that Rev. J. H. Corley is from Dawson.

Davenport, Henry T., ca. 1843-1918
Henry T. Davenport is a delegate from Sumter County to the State Convention in Milledgeville in 1861, during which Georgia secedes from the Union. Davenport marries the former Louisa Harrold. Samuel Hawkins reports that Davenport is elected Finance Committee treasurer at a Baptist Church Sunday Conference.

Davenport, Walter T.
When Samuel Hawkins starts the Bank of Americus in 1872, Colonel Davenport is a member of the Board of Directors. Hawkins notes that the wellground in front of Colonel Davenport's is being considered for a park and fairground in 1877.

Davis, B. W. (Brit W.)
B. W. Davis is a teacher in Buena Vista. Samuel Hawkins mentions that Davis visits from Marion County and dines with his family.

Davis, Edwin Tralona, 1842-1879
Captain, Georgia Volunteer Infantry, Company B. Davis begins his Civil War service as a 2nd sergeant in May 1862. In January 1863, he is elected junior 2nd lieutenant. He is captured at Vicksburg in May 1863 and exchanged. In January 1864, he becomes acting adjutant, after which he is elected captain of Company B. Born in Davisboro, Ga., Davis later becomes a resident of Thomasville. Samuel Hawkins notes that Captain Davis is president of the Thomasville Fair in 1877.

Dooly County (Ga.)
Dooly County, created in 1821, is the forty-eighth county formed in Georgia. One of the original landlot counties, it is later divided to make Crisp and parts of Macon, Pulaski, Turner, Wilcox and Worth counties. The county is named for Colonel John Dooly, a Revolutionary War hero who helps prosecute Tories in 1779 and is murdered by them the following year. Vienna, the county seat, is named after the capital of Austria. Samuel Hawkins writes that, with Buchanan & Brothers, he purchases the right to make and rend the Bell Cultivator in Dooly County as well as in Schley, Macon, Lee and Sumter Counties. According to Hawkins, the Bank of Americus buys land in Dooly. While in Dooly, Hawkins visits several associates.

Douglas, Dr.
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Dr. Douglas at the Thomasville Fair. Dr. Douglas is possibly Reverend D. S. T. Douglas, who is principal of the Beulah Academy in 1879. For more information see Rogers, William Warren. Thomas County 1865-1900. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1973.

Drayton (Ga.)
The first county seat of Dooly County, Georgia, created in 1821, is Drayton on the banks of the Flint River. Samuel Hawkins notes that on a trip to Dooly County, he stops for a short time at Drayton.

Duncan, John P., Rev.
Samuel Hawkins notes that the Reverend John P. Duncan spends the night at his house.

Durin, James B.
Samuel Hawkins reports that the Conference at the Baptist Church elects James B. Durin as clerk.

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Elam, Samuel Creed, d. 1889
Born in Chesterfield, Va., Elam is judge of the Inferior Court of Fulton County in Atlanta before moving to Americus in 1857. Samuel Hawkins reports that Elam serves as attorney for J.W. Wheatley & Co. during Hawkins' negotiations for the acquisition of part of the Furlow property.

Evans, Clement A. (Clement Anselm), 1833-1911
A lawyer and politician from Lumpkin, Ga., Evans is promoted to Brigadier General in the last months of the Civil War. After the war, Evans becomes a minister. He writes Military History of Georgia and edits the thirteen-volume Confederate Military History. Hawkins relates that Evans reads the commencement sermon in Americus in June 1877.

Felder, Annie, d. 1877
Samuel Hawkins reports her death on April 1, 1877. She is the child of J. B. Felder. Hawkins notes that Annie is one of three children of Americus who die within the past eighteen months.

Felder, Calvin Walker, b. 1820
The father of John B. Felder, Captain Felder is born in Orangeburg District, South Carolina. He serves in the Creek Indian War of 1836 and in the Civil War as captain on the staff of General Henry K. McCay. He marries the former Mary Ann Jackson in 1851. Captain Felder owns the Planter's Warehouse, a local cotton concern. Samuel Hawkins reports that he conducts a successful test of the Bell Cultivator at Captain Felder's farm.

Felder, J. B. (John Barsh), ca. 1834-1912
Felder, a successful merchant and realtor, is elected treasurer of the Wide Awake Fire Company in 1868. He is an alternate delegate to the Third Congressional District Convention in Macon where delegates to the National Democratic Convention in St. Louis are chosen. Felder serves as the unopposed mayor of Americus from 1877 to 1891. Fearing an epidemic of smallpox in 1883, Mayor Felder announces that he and the city council are going to ask the General Assembly to pass an act giving them the power to remove smallpox victims to a pest house, make smallpox vaccinations compulsory for the citizens of Americus, and quarantine all persons exposed to smallpox. In 1890, Felder contributes to the incorporation of the Americus Savings Bank. Felder is mayor for fifteen years, ending in 1892, when he does not offer for reelection. His wife is the former Lucy Taylor. Samuel Hawkins reports that Felder and he are appointed by the city council to report on the suitability of various places for a park and fairground.

First National Bank of Americus
The First National Bank of Americus is organized in 1870 with Francis M. Coker as president. It is the first bank in southwest Georgia organized under the provisions of the National Banking Act. Coker leaves the bank three years later to become president of the Bank of the State of Georgia in Atlanta.

First National Bank of Americus. Board of Directors
The First National Bank of Americus is organized in 1870 with Francis M. Coker as president. Coker leaves the bank three years later to become president of the Bank of the State of Georgia in Atlanta. In 1877, Samuel Hawkins records the sensational stockholder revision of the Board of Directors. Hawkins writes that R. T. Byrd and several other leading directors are left off the election ballot, which gives the presidency to A. C. Bell.

First United Methodist Church (Americus, Ga.)
In 1854, Americus is established as a station of the Methodist Church with Reverend J. R. Littlejohn as pastor. In 1856, the annual conference of the Methodist Church, with representatives from the entire state of Georgia, convenes in Americus. Samuel Hawkins mentions that he attends services at the Methodist Church when Dr. Cooper is absent from the Baptist Church.

Fletcher, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins reports that his wife and children attend the wedding of Mr. Fletcher and Babe Matthews.

Fletcher, Dolly
Samuel Hawkins mentions that his cousin Dolly Fletcher visits from Monroe.

Flint River (Ga.)
On his way from Americus to Dooly County, Samuel Hawkins crosses the Flint River to look at some lands owned by the Bank of Americus. The Flint River begins just south of Atlanta and flows through southwest Georgia to the Gulf of Mexico. Today the Flint River provides water to over 600,000 living in the Flint River Basin and flows for more than 200 miles unimpeded. In 1994, the Flint River crests at forty-three feet, causing a major flood in Albany, Ga. that forces the evacuation of 23,000 residents.

Frank, L. B.
Samuel Hawkins notes that Frank is a tenant in arrears. -- See Nussbaum & Dannonbergh.

Furlow, Charles Timothy
Charles Timothy Furlow is the son of T. M. Furlow. Samuel Hawkins notes that he secures the services of Charles Furlow as cashier of the Bank of Americus to replace the chronically ill A. L. Rees. Furlow is cashier of the Bank of Sumter when it closes its doors during the economic panic of 1893.

Furlow, James W. (James Wadsworth)
The brother of T. M. Furlow, James comes to Americus and engages in business and politics. James Furlow is on the original board of directors of the Bank of Americus. Samuel Hawkins records his efforts to obtain more money for Furlow for his extra services as county commissioner for the years 1873 to 1876. Additionally, Hawkins' notes suggest that Furlow remains county commissioner in 1877.

Furlow, T. M. (Timothy Mathews), 1814-1890
Born in Morgan County, T. M. Furlow is orphaned at a young age and raised by his uncle. He attends Franklin College, now known as the University of Georgia, in 1833 and marries Charlotte Mary Lowther, whom he meets while working at a dry goods store. He does not return to college. After his wife and second child die in 1838, Furlow moves back to Bibb County, serving as its representative in the General Assembly in 1841 and in the state senate in 1842. He marries Margaret E. Holt of Bibb County in 1839. After Margaret and their fifth child die, Furlow moves his family to Americus in 1849, where he associates with J. J. Granbery in a general mercantile business. They construct the first brick building in Americus to house their stock of goods. Furlow later acquires a plantation of several thousand acres. In 1852, he leads an effort to raise $75,000 to buy shares of stock in the railroad to assure a rail line in Americus. The first train arrives in 1854, when Furlow serves as one of the original members of the council for the government of the city. In 1859, Furlow, A. S. Cutts, and W. A. Hawkins establish the Furlow Masonic Female College. In 1861, Furlow is a delegate to the state convention at Milledgeville, during which Georgia secedes from the United States. In 1863, Furlow makes an unsuccessful bid for governor, losing to incumbent Joseph Brown. During the Civil War, Furlow first serves in the Home Guard, but is promoted to lieutenant colonel when his battalion of the Georgia Militia, stationed at Anderson Prison, becomes part of the Eleventh Georgia Regiment. Furlow commands his regiment in battle at Atlanta and Griswoldville. Furlow is the fourth mayor of Americus. In 1873, he is a charter member of the board of education. Furlow is again a delegate to the state convention in 1877. Samuel Hawkins describes a deal he makes with Furlow to pay and trade for part of Furlow's land.

Furlow Masonic Female College
In 1859, T. M. Furlow, A. S. Cutts, and W. A. Hawkins in conjunction with Americus Lodge No. 31, F. & A.M. establish the Furlow Masonic Female College, each contributing $1000 and campaigning vigorously on its behalf. The first president is Reverend Creed Fulton of Virginia. Some of the first instructors are W. A. Wilson, E. M. Rylander, and W. B. Guerry. Sallie Pickett, who later marries A. K. Schumpert, is the valedictorian of the first graduating class. The Masonic Lodge funds the education of many girls whose families cannot afford the tuition. In order to spare embarrassment to girls from poor families, all girls are required to wear sunbonnets and tie their hair with shoe string instead of ribbon. During the Civil War, the first hospital to relocate in Americus occupies the Furlow Masonic Female College building. In 1879, the college ceases operations, and the Furlow building is turned over to the city for use as Americus' first public school.

Furlow place
Samuel Hawkins describes his negotiations for and purchase of the Furlow place, T. M. Furlow's plantation, amounting to 2,400 acres. Hawkins also refers to the land as the T. M. Furlow farm.

Furlow's Lawn
Samuel Hawkins mentions that social events such as the Ladies Festival take place on Furlow's Lawn, land owned by T. M. Furlow. Hawkins reveals that Furlow's Lawn was the preferred site for the park and fairgrounds. After T. M. Furlow's death in 1890, his land is subdivided into building lots. Dr. Charles Brooks builds the first residence on Furlow's Lawn.

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Gainesville (Ga.)
Gainesville is established as Mule Camp Springs near the crossing of two Native American trails followed by nineteenth century settlers. After the creation of Hall County, the village is chosen to be the county seat and chartered by the Georgia Legislature in 1821. Justice John Vance Cotter suggests the name Gainesville to honor the War of 1812 hero General Edmund P. Gaines. Hawkins relates that the Baptist state convention is to be held at Gainesville.

Gardiner places
Samuel Hawkins describes traveling by the Gardiner places on his way back to Americus from his recently purchased farm, the Furlow place.

Garrah, S. M.
Samuel Hawkins mentions that Garrah accompanies him to test out the Bell Cultivator at Captain Felder's farm.

Georgia. Constitutional Convention (1877)
The 1877 Constitutional Convention in Georgia is the first since President Hayes ends Federal occupation of the South. The Constitutional Convention convenes July 11 and is chaired by former governor Charles Jenkins. Voters approve the new constitution on December 5, 1877 and affirm the movement of the state capital from Milledgeville to Atlanta. Samuel Hawkins notes that Colonel Cutts and J. H. Black ask him to be a candidate for the Constitutional Convention. Hawkins refuses. Hawkins later mentions a meeting of the Executive Committees of the Democratic party of Schley, Macon, and Sumter at Americus to discuss candidates for the Constitutional Convention from their district. He notes that General Cook speaks in favor of and John R. Worrill against the Constitutional Convention. Later, Hawkins describes a meeting of delegates from the various militia districts in Sumter County to appoint twelve delegates to meet at the district convention to nominate Constitutional Convention candidates. The meeting recommends the nomination of Dr. George F. Cooper, T. M. Furlow, and Joseph B. Scott.

Georgia. Superior Court (Southwestern Circuit)
Samuel Hawkins reports that Judge James M. Clarke is reappointed to the Southwestern Circuit early in 1877. Later, Hawkins mentions Clarke's death and the subsequent appointment of C. F. Crisp by the Georgia legislature.

Glover, S. E.
Samuel Hawkins records that an S. E. Glover makes an unsuccessful bid for Sumter County tax collector in 1877. Americus through the Years reveals that in 1879, Sampson C. Glover is the county tax collector.

Gordon (Ga.)
The first community in the area is centered around a church organized with ten members in 1809. Gordon is established years later. The Central of Georgia Railroad lays tracks through Gordon in 1840, and the first passenger train arrives in 1843. The town is named for William W. Gordon, who serves as the first president of the Central of Georgia Railroad from 1836 to 1842. A smallpox epidemic envelops the community during the Civil War, but Gordon remains an important transportation center for the rest of the war as it is the beginning of the only intact railway south. Gordon is incorporated in 1885 with Dr. W. Lee as first mayor. Samuel Hawkins notes that he takes a branch of the railroad at Gordon to get to Milledgeville.

Graham, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins reports that Graham offers the Avery Walking Cultivator for sale in Americus for the first time in 1877.

Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885
Born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, Grant is best known as a general in the Union Army during the Civil War and as the eighteenth President of the United States from 1869 to 1877. Grant attends the U.S. Military Academy and graduates from West Point in 1843. He marries Julia Boggs Dent in 1848. He serves in the Mexican War and is promoted to captain in 1853. In 1854, however, Grant resigns from the military to pursue other occupations, including farming, real estate, and a leather business. Grant reenters military service during the Civil War and is appointed colonel of the 21st Illinois. It is not long before he rises to the rank of brigadier general. Grant captures Fort Henry in Tennessee in February 1862. After the Battle of Chattanooga, he is promoted to lieutenant general and ultimately commands all the Union armies. After the end of the Civil War, the U.S. Congress makes Grant General of the Army. In 1868, Grant runs as the Republican candidate for president, and he serves two terms. After he retires from office, Grant travels for two years in Europe. Tragically, he is swindled by a Wall Street investor and loses most of his fortune, but he is able to restore an income for his wife by the time of his death by publishing his personal memoirs, which are a great success. Samuel Hawkins notes that during Reconstruction, Grant stations Federal troops at the state house in South Carolina, and Hawkins expresses relief when newly installed President Hayes removes them in 1877.

Greenway Seminary
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he donates $100 to Greenway Seminary through Reverend M. B. Wharton.

Grove School for Boys and Girls

Guerry, William W.
Samuel Hawkins reports that W. W. Guerry wins the 1877 election for county coroner. He serves as coroner again in 1879.

Guerry & Son
Samuel Hawkins reports that Guerry & Son are among the defense lawyers assigned to Charley Thomas, the alleged murderer of Mrs. Carraway. When Hawkins settles in Americus after the Civil War, he becomes a law partner of Dupont Guerry and B. P. Hollis. Eventually Dupont Guerry moves his law practice to Macon where he ultimately serves as president of Wesleyan College from 1903 to 1909. Guerry is an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1902. Guerry & Son possibly refers to Dupont and his father, lawyer William B. Guerry. William edits The Southwestern News from 1855 to 1860 and is an early instructor for Furlow Masonic Female College.

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Hale
Samuel Hawkins mentions that there is an early crop of ripe peaches in Hale's garden.

Hampton, Wade, 1818-1902
The son of wealthy planters, Hampton operates plantations in South Carolina and the lower Mississippi Valley and holds several public offices before the Civil War. When the Civil War begins, he personally organizes and substantially equips the Hampton Legion, composed of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Hampton fights at First Manassas and participates in the Peninsula, Antietam, and Gettysburg campaigns. At Antietam and Gettysburg, he commands cavalry. In September 1863, Hampton becomes a major general. He takes command of the cavalry corps during the siege of Petersburg after the death of General Stuart in May 1864. Hampton runs for the governorship of South Carolina in 1876. Daniel Henry Chamberlain is initially declared the winner of the gubernatorial race, but a second count of the votes including previously ignored ballots from two counties reveals that Wade Hampton has received the most votes. Hampton and Chamberlain both claim governorship until Chamberlain leaves South Carolina in 1877 when President Hayes removes Federal troops from Columbia. Hampton serves two terms as the governor of South Carolina following the Civil War. From 1879 to 1891, Hampton serves as a United States senator. He is known as the "Savior of South Carolina" for his efforts as Governor to help the state recover from Reconstruction.

Hancock, Charles W.
Originally from Washington in Wilkes County, Hancock becomes a highly esteemed editor in Americus. In 1854, he founds the first weekly newspaper in Americus, The Sumter Republican. During the Civil War, Hancock serves in the Sumter Light Guards for one year before he is discharged as over-age. His admirers in Americus nickname him "Colonel." Hancock supports the proposal for early shop closings by several merchants and also recommends later openings. He is one of two original vice presidents of the Americus Library Association. Hancock discontinues his paper in 1889 because of reduced advertising patronage.

Hardaway, Robert Hartwell
Judge Hardaway is the first mayor of Thomasville. Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Hardaway while at the Thomasville Fair. Hardaway is married to Elizabeth Walton Mitchell in 1837 in Thomas County, Ga.

Hardeman, Thomas, 1825-1891
Born in Eatonton, Ga., Hardeman is best known as a U.S. representative from Georgia. He graduates from Emory in 1845 and though he has studied law, opts to engage in the warehouse and commission business. Hardeman serves in the State House of Representatives in 1853, 1855, 1857, 1863, 1864, and 1874. Elected as an Opposition candidate to the Thirty-sixth Congress, Hardeman serves from 1859 to 1861. During the Civil War, Hardeman is captain of the Floyd Rifles. Promoted to a major of the 2nd Georgia Battalion, Hardeman ultimately rises to the rank of colonel of the Forty-fifth Georgia Infantry. After the Civil War, Hardeman is a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1872. He becomes president of the state convention and chairman of the Democratic State executive committee for four years. Hardeman is elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth Congress from 1883 to 1885 and is chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State. He dies in Macon, Ga. Samuel Hawkins reports that Hardeman is the newly installed president of the convention of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville in 1877.

Harrold, Uriah B. (Uriah Bulloch), 1839-1907
Uriah B. Harrold is the son of a New York wholesaler who moves to Macon, Ga. in 1835. Although Harrold is born in Macon, Ga., he is raised and educated in New York. He moves to Americus in 1860 to start a wholesale business financed by New York grocery wholesaler Thos. Wood & Co. in partnership with Henry R. Johnson. With the Civil War looming, Harrold is urged by his father not to use the name of the financier Thos. Wood & Co. because of its northern associations. By the time the war breaks out, the firm, known as Johnson & Harrold, has become H.R. Johnson & Co. In 1862, Harrold accepts a job as commissary agent for the Confederate government and is responsible for furnishing all the provisions for Anderson Prison Camp. Unfortunately, corruption within the prison ensures that few of the provisions ever reach the prisoners. After the Civil War, a number of prominent Americus men, including Harrold, testify against the commander of Andersonville prison, Captain Henry Wirz, who is convicted and hanged. In 1873, U. B. Harrold is a charter member of the board of education. In 1876, he contributes shade trees to several prominent streets in Americus. In 1886, Harrold installs the first telephone system in Americus. He serves as chairman of the Board of Water Commissioners and is senior warden of Calvary Episcopal Church for over twenty-five years. Samuel Hawkins reports that he witnesses a demonstration of a patent reaper at U. B. Harrold's.

Hawkins, Cordelia Matthews, ca. 1843-1919
While completing his education at Moss Hill Academy, Samuel Hawkins meets Cordelia Matthews, the daughter of Marion County's wealthiest planter, William Matthews. Hawkins marries Cordelia in 1860. The town of Cordele, created along the Savannah, Americus and Montgomery Railway, is named in honor of Cordelia. (Many sources cite their daughter Cordelia as the city's namesake.) In his diary, Samuel Hawkins records that Cordelia gives birth to a son on June 8th.

Hawkins, William
Samuel Hawkins makes several references to his son, Willie. Hawkins notes with pride that Willie has decided to join the Baptist Church and attend Sunday school with him.

Hawkins, Willis Alston, 1825-1886
Willis Alston Hawkins arrives in Americus early in its history. Born in Morgan County, Hawkins studies law under Judge Augustus Reese at Madison. After he is admitted to the bar in 1846, he opens a law office in Starkville and teaches school. A year later, he marries Terinda Smith, the daughter of Judge Griffin Smith. In 1850, Hawkins is a delegate from Lee County to the State Convention. He moves to Americus in 1852, and the next year, his wife dies. In 1854, Hawkins marries Mary Finn of Augusta and becomes the law partner of H. Kent McCay. Hawkins makes an unsuccessful bid for Congress as the American Party candidate in 1855. In 1859, he joins with T. M. Furlow and A. S. Cutts to establish the Furlow Masonic Female College. Hawkins is one of the delegates of Sumter County to the state convention in 1861, during which Georgia secedes from the Union. During the Civil War, Hawkins is captain of the Muckalee Guards, Company A of the Twelfth Georgia Infantry Regiment, organized at Richmond in June 1861. The Muckalee Guards take part in several decisive battles in Virginia, and Hawkins is promoted to lieutenant colonel. He serves as regimental commander for some time before resigning his post and returning home because of impaired health. According to Samuel Hawkins, W. A. Hawkins is one of the defense lawyers assigned to Charley Thomas, the alleged murderer of Mrs. Carraway. In 1880, W. A. Hawkins is a delegate from Sumter County to the gubernatorial convention. Soon after, he is appointed an associate justice of the State Supreme Court. Unfortunately, as during the Civil War, ill health forces him to resign and return to his law practice.

Hawkes, William M.
Hawkes is the foreman of Wide Awake Fire Company. Samuel Hawkins notes that Hawkes introduces U.S. Representative S. S. Cox when Cox presents a lecture to benefit Wide Awake Fire Company.

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893
Born in Ohio, Hayes receives his education from Kenyon College and Harvard Law School. During the Civil War, he rises to the rank of brevet major general. He is elected to Congress after the war, and in 1867, returns to Ohio to serve as governor for three terms. In the 1876 presidential election, Hayes, a Republican, opposes the Democratic candidate, Governor Samuel Tilden of New York, who is favored in the South. Hayes expects Tilden to win and appears to lose the popular vote, but electoral votes in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana are contested. Hayes can only win if all the disputed electoral votes go to him. In January 1877, Congress establishes an Electoral Commission to decide the dispute. The Commission, comprised of eight Republicans and seven Democrats, determine all the contested counts in favor of Hayes by eight to seven, resulting in the election of Hayes. In the interest of building a new Republican party in the South, one of Hayes' first actions as President is to withdraw Federal troops from South Carolina. Hayes retires to Ohio after serving only one term.

Haynes, William D.
The Haynes family is prominent in Americus. Samuel Hawkins notes with sympathy the death of Mrs. Haynes on May 3rd, 1877. Americus through the Years notes that W. D. Haynes is among the people receiving visitors during the traditional New Year's receptions in 1879.

Haynes, William D., Mrs., d. 1877
The Haynes family is prominent in Americus. Samuel Hawkins notes with sympathy the death of Mrs. Haynes on May 3rd, 1877.

Herndon, Cora
Samuel Hawkins lists Cora among the attendees of a Sunday school excursion to Macon. She may be the daughter of Y. A. Herndon.

Herndon, Frank
Samuel Hawkins lists Frank among the attendees of a Sunday school excursion to Macon. He may be the son of Y. A. Herndon.

Herndon, Y. A.
Samuel Hawkins notes that Herndon is a business partner in farming and a close family friend.

Herndon, Y. A., Mrs.
Samuel Hawkins reveals that Mrs. Herndon is a close family friend. He mentions that his family visits the Herndons just a few days after Mrs. Herndon gives birth to a baby girl.

Heys, Samuel R.
During the Civil War, Heys is the second lieutenant of the Sumter Flying Artillery, commanded by Captain A. S. Cutts. Samuel Hawkins reports that Heys is one of the people from Americus who attends the Thomasville Fair.

Hill, Benjamin H. (Benjamin Harvey), 1823-1882
Born in Hillsborough, Jasper County, Georgia, Hill pursues classical studies and graduates from the University of Georgia in 1844. He studies law and is admitted to the bar in 1844. He begins his practice in LaGrange. Hill then becomes an active and powerful politician. In 1851, he is a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, and he runs for governor of Georgia in 1857. As a delegate to the Georgia secession convention, Hill stands against the secession. In spite of secession, Hill serves as a delegate from Georgia to the Confederate Provisional Congress from 1861 to 1862. From 1862 to the end of the Civil War in 1865, Hill is a senator from Georgia in the Confederate Congress. After the war, Hill is still a strong voice, speaking during the State Democratic Convention of 1868, where presidential electors are chosen. He serves as a United States representative from Georgia from 1875 to 1877. Samuel Hawkins reports the election of Hill in 1877 to the senate, in which he serves until his death.

Hill, Robert J.
Hill is a senator from Sumter County from 1857 to 1860. Samuel Hawkins notes that Hill reads a paper on farm stock raising at a meeting of the Sumter County Agricultural Society.

Hinkle, J. B.
Dr. Hinkle is the surgeon of the second volunteer fire company organized in Americus in 1870. In 1876, Hinkle is a delegate to the Third Congressional District convention in Macon, where delegates to the National Democratic Convention in St. Louis are chosen. Samuel Hawkins reports that on April 26th, 1877, Dr. Hinkle gives a memorial address at the Methodist church. In 1892, J. B. Hinkle and his son, Dr. A. B. Hinkle, are accused of murdering a dentist, Dr. Joseph J. Worsham. Another dentist, Dr. W. P. Burt, sues J. B. Hinkle over an unpaid dental account. Dr. Worsham testifies in favor of Burt and directly against the testimony of J. B. Hinkle about work Burt did for Hinkle's son. The jury finds in favor of Burt, and after the trial, J. B. Hinkle and his son order Worsham not to speak to them again, claiming Worsham has testified falsely. Worsham retorts that it is J. B. Hinkle who has lied under oath. Later, as Worsham passes by the Hinkles' office on his way home, he is shot. Although J. B. Hinkle claims he killed Worsham, both father and son are taken into custody. As Worsham is well-liked, citizens gather around the jail threatening to lynch the Hinkles. Both of the Hinkles are tried in 1893, represented and prosecuted by brilliant lawyers. Judge Matthews commits both doctors to jail for murder. The case is continued several times because of the questionable sanity of J. B. Hinkle and his alleged ill health. It is not long before Dr. J. B. Hinkle commits suicide, leaving a note that he shot Worsham to keep Worsham from shooting his son. Although it is widely believed that J. B. takes the blame to spare his son a prison sentence, Dr. A. B. Hinkle is ultimately freed, and he moves to Macon to continue his practice.

Hollis, B. P., 1844-1893
Hollis is born in Monroe County and later moves to Americus when he is fifteen. During the Civil War, Hollis is captain of the Stonewall Cavalry and ultimately achieves the rank of colonel. After the war, Hollis studies law under Hon. Charles T. Goode and becomes an attorney, partnering with Dupont Guerry and Samuel Hawkins. In 1871, he marries Florence Davenport, daughter of Colonel W. T. Davenport of Americus. Hollis later partners with C. F. Crisp. In 1877, Hollis competes against Crisp for the appointment as judge of the southwestern circuit. Samuel Hawkins notes that he favors Hollis for the appointment, but is not entirely disappointed when Crisp wins. In 1893, Hollis is a prosecuting attorney in the trial of Dr. J. B. Hinkle and Dr. A. B. Hinkle for the murder of Dr. Joseph J. Worsham. Hollis serves as an attorney for the Georgia Loan and Trust Company and the Savannah, Americus and Montgomery railroad. The stress of the economic panic of 1893 and the crash of the SAM railroad probably leads to his death. His wife Florence outlives him by sixty years, dying in 1954 at the age of 105.

Hopkins, H. W.
Judge Hopkins is active in the South Georgia Pear Growers Association. Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Judge Hopkins, son-in-law of Colonel James Seward, while attending the 1877 Thomasville Fair. After the demise of the Agricultural Society in 1880, the vacuum is filled by the Thomas County Stock Breeders Association. H. W. Hopkins is elected president and the organization sponsors a fair in 1882 with shooting contests, races and livestock exhibitions. One of the area's leading sportsmen, Judge Hopkins organizes many hunts, including a typical fox hunt in 1876 and quail and dove hunts, some for visitors from the North. Judge Hopkins is president of the Thomasville Gun Club. The drive to reorganize the Gun Club leads to the formation of the Glen Arven Country Club in 1895. Later, Judge Hopkins is a member of the Iamonia Club, formed in 1900, in which local and northern huntsmen lease exclusive privileges on Lake Iamonia for five years. They propose not only to shoot, but also to protect the game by hiring a gamekeeper to prevent trespassing.

Hooks, William W.
Hooks is on the board of directors of the Bank of Americus, and he also owns a private banking house.

Howell
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Judge Howell at the Thomasville Fair.

Huguenin places
Colonel Edward David Huguenin, a native of Savannah, is the richest of Sumter County's landowners. The Huguenin plantations are staffed by nearly three hundred slaves. Samuel Hawkins notes that C. C. Clay lives on and takes care of the Huguenin places for the Bank of Americus in 1877.

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Jackson, P. A.
Samuel Hawkins contracts to farm for a year with P. A. Jackson on the Furlow lands which Hawkins acquires.

James, J. H.
Samuel Hawkins notes that he accepts J. H. James' proposal to sell bonds to Bank of Americus.

Jarrett, W. A.
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he stays at the home of Dr. W. A. Jarrett during the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society held in Milledgeville in April 1877. He describes Jarrett as a hospitable host.

Jenkins, S. T.
Samuel Hawkins notes that Jenkins spends two nights with him and accompanies him on a visit to the Shackleford place along with Merrel Callaway before leaving for Albany.

Joiner, J. C.
Hawkins reports that J. C. Joiner loses the election for sheriff of Sumter County. Later, Hawkins mentions visiting a Mr. Joiner while on a trip to Dooly County. It is unclear whether the two references are to the same man.

Jones, W. L. (William L.)
Samuel Hawkins notes that Dr. Jones reads an essay at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society. His essay, titled A Farmer -- What Should He Be? is a description of the ideal qualities a farmer must possess to succeed and the argument that agricultural colleges must focus on practical application of farming techniques, rather than classical education.

Jordan, John W., Jr.
Samuel Hawkins lists Jordan among the delegates to the Sumter County Convention. Hawkins mentions attending a barbecue with Jordan, and Jordan also accompanies Hawkins to the Thomasville Fair. On their return from the Thomasville Fair, the two set up a display of large vegetables they have brought from the Fair. Later, Jordan helps Hawkins raise money for the Americus Fair Association.

J.W. Wheatley & Co.
In 1866, John Wright Wheatley joins with his brother-in-law, W. H. C. Dudley, to establish J.W. Wheatley & Company, a banking house affiliated with William Bryce & Company, a respected New York firm. T. M. Furlow owes money to J.W. Wheatley & Co., which Samuel Hawkins pays as part of his trade for the Furlow farm.

Kendrick, J. A. (Judson A.)
J. A. Kendrick is a rich merchant in Americus. During the traditional New Year's receptions in Americus, the Kendricks are one of the families who receive visitors. Samuel Hawkins notes that the finance committee of the Baptist Church holds a meeting at the Kendrick home. J. A. Kendrick and Sons, which is later known successively as Kendrick & Wheatley, T. Wheatley, Wheatley & Ansley, and Charles L. Ansley, is a forerunner of the modern department store and ultimately falls victim to the stock market crash of 1929.

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Lee County (Ga.)
Though Lee County is created by an act of the Georgia General Assembly in 1826, Lee County is not officially organized by an act of legislature until 1832. Lee County lies between the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. Originally much larger, Lee County encompasses the later counties of Quitman, Randolph, Stewart, Sumter, Terrell and Webster, parts of Schley, Chattahoochee, Macon, Clay, and Marion. Starksville is the original county seat. Original settlers in Lee County raise stock and later establish plantations. Swampy land and poor drinking water contribute to fevers. In 1873, Wooten Station becomes the county seat and later becomes known as Leesburg. It is possible that Lee County is named after Major General Henry Lee, also known as "Light Horse Harry."

Leesburg (Ga.)
In 1857, the Southwestern Railroad, owned by the Central Rail Road of Georgia, completes the line from Albany to Americus. The county seat of Lee moves from Starksville to Wooten Station on the new railroad line. Wooten Station is formerly the stage coach stop known as Sneed's Store and later becomes Leesburg. The first mayor of Leesburg is C. W. Arnold. By the turn of the century, Leesburg is a thriving town that sells thousands of bales of cotton annually.

Lewis, Mrs.
Samuel Hawkins notes that on a trip to Dooly County, he looks over land purchased from Mrs. Lewis by the Bank of Americus.

Lockett, U. S.
U.S. Lockett operates a stable, which his son, G.S. Lockett, later converts to a saloon. Samuel Hawkins reports that U.S. Lockett is among the delegates selected for the county convention to elect delegates for the senatorial convention.

Louisiana
Samuel Hawkins bemoans the expectation that the electoral votes of the state of Louisiana will be awarded to Rutherford B. Hayes, giving him the Presidency of the United States. In the 1876 presidential election, Hayes, a Republican, opposes the Democratic candidate, Governor Samuel Tilden of New York, who is favored by the South. Hayes expects Tilden to win, and appears to lose the popular vote, but electoral votes in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana are contested. Hayes can win only if all the disputed electoral votes go to him; if there is only one electoral vote for Tilden, Tilden will win. In January 1877, Congress establishes an Electoral Commission to decide the dispute. The Commission, comprised of eight Republicans and seven Democrats, determines all the contests in favor of Hayes by eight to seven, resulting in the election of Hayes.

Loyless, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins notes that he goes with Mr. Loyless to examine his lands on Muckalee Creek near Americus.

Lumpkin (Ga.)
Established in 1829, the town of Lumpkin is named for Governor Wilson Lumpkin. The first courthouse is built in 1831 of hewn logs and serves as a block house when Native Americans threaten attack in 1836. Samuel Hawkins notes that Rev. C. A. Evans, who speaks at the Methodist Church, is formerly a lawyer in Lumpkin before serving as a Confederate brigadier general during the Civil War.

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Macon (Ga.)
Macon is the county seat of Bibb County, created by the Georgia legislature in 1822. Macon is originally the site of a trading post established to keep the peace after the Creeks cede their lands east of the Ocmulgee River in 1806. The world's first college for women, now Wesleyan College, is chartered in Macon in 1836. Macon is served by the Macon & Western Rail Road and Central of Georgia Railway, which comes to Macon in 1843. Cotton is the primary commodity of Macon's early economy, and Macon prospers because of its strategic location on the Ocmulgee River. Samuel Hawkins mentions that he stays in Macon on his way to the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society. His church also plans a Sunday school excursion to Macon.

Magnolia Dell
Magnolia Dell is an undeveloped location in Americus. Samuel Hawkins mentions that Magnolia Dell is the alternate site of a church picnic excursion to Macon. A whiskey distillery locates in Magnolia Dell during the 1890s. A brickyard near Magnolia Dell supplies the building materials for the Windsor Hotel, which is under construction from 1890 to 1891.

Marion County
Formed in 1827 by the Georgia legislature, Marion County is named after Francis Marion, a revolutionary war hero from South Carolina. Located on the coastal plain and drained by the Kinchafoonee River, Marion County's main crops are soybeans, wheat, corn, and peanuts. Samuel Hawkins mentions that his brother-in-law, John L. Matthews, resides in Marion County.

Matthews, Babe
Samuel Hawkins reports that his wife and children attend the wedding of Mr. Fletcher and Babe Matthews.

Matthews, Frances Herndon
Formerly Frances Herndon of Marion County, Mrs. Matthews is sister-in-law to Samuel Hawkins' wife Cordelia, the sister of John L. Matthews.

Matthews, John L., b. ca. 1827
J. L. Matthews lives in the Kinchafoonee District of Marion County, one of the wealthiest areas in Georgia. His wife is the former Frances Herndon of Marion County. Samuel Hawkins marries J.L. Matthews' sister, Cordelia.

Matthews, Sallie
Possibly a daughter of J. L. and Frances Matthews, Sallie also lives in Marion County. Samuel Hawkins mentions Sallie as one of the attendees of the Sunday school excursion to Macon and the trip to the Thomasville Fair.

McCay, Henry Kent
Born in 1820, a native of Pennsylvania and graduate of Princeton, Judge McCay comes to Georgia in 1839. He helps found the Presbyterian Church in Americus in 1842. McCay opens a drug store with John Wright Wheatley and later opens a law practice, partnering with Willis Alston Hawkins. Although opposed to secession, McCay serves as a Confederate officer during the Civil War. Afterward, he represents Sumter County at the Constitutional Convention of 1868, when he serves on the Supreme Court of Georgia. In 1886, Judge McCay is appointed to the bench of the U.S. District Court. Samuel Hawkins notes that lands belonging to Judge McCay are considered for the proposed park and fair ground. He dies in 1886.

McCleskey, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins notes that Mr. McCleskey accompanies him to a barbecue at Sadler's Mill.

McIntyre, Col.
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Colonel McIntyre at the Thomasville Fair. His identity is unclear, but he may be A. A. McIntyre, a planter with eighty-four slaves and twelve houses, or Archibald Thompson, 1822-1900.

McKinley, William, 1809-1879
An attorney, McKinley is also an avid reader of agricultural journals and is inspired by New York agriculturalists. In 1858, he completes a large brick Gothic plantation house from the form book of New York architect Andrew J. Downing. In July 1864, anticipating Federal raiders led by Major Francis M. Davidson, McKinley offers his plantation as a refuge for the governor's family, which they readily accept. The McKinleys spend the night before their arrival hiding food and valuables that might be stolen by raiders. After the Civil War, McKinley promotes a plan to make Milledgeville the seat of the proposed agricultural college. He argues that the existence of both an agricultural college and a college of liberal arts on the same campus in Athens will be fatal to both because of the disruptive social stratification that will result. Samuel Hawkins notes that Colonel William McKinley welcomes the delegates to the 1877 spring meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville. His speech addresses the need for a revision of land laws created by the Constitution of 1868.

McLendon, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins notes that, while at the Thomasville Fair, he meets the secretary of the Fair, Mr. McLendon. McLendon's identity is unclear, but he may be William McLendon, a politician.

Memphis (Tenn.)
In 1818, the Chickasaws relinquish their northern territory along the Mississippi River, and Memphis is surveyed and designed in 1819. German and Irish immigrants to Memphis establish businesses, provide labor, and build some of the first churches in Memphis. Before the Civil War, the key crop in Memphis is cotton. During the Civil War, Memphis becomes a military supply depot for the Confederacy before the Southern defeat at Shiloh and loss of Fort Pillow. Soon after the Mississippi River battle on June 6, 1862, Memphis becomes Union headquarters for federal General Ulysses S. Grant. As a Union territory, Memphis attracts many former slaves, and African Americans make considerable social, political, and economic strides during Reconstruction. Yellow fever decimates Memphis following the Civil War, causing Tennessee to repeal the city's charter in 1879. In the 1880s, a new sewage system helps eradicate yellow fever, and the discovery of an artesian water supply restores health to the city. Memphis is famous for its pure water to this day. Samuel Hawkins relates that the visiting Reverend Coneson is from Memphis. It seems possible, though not suggested by Hawkins, that Coneson is traveling to escape the yellow fever epidemic in Memphis at the time.

Mercer University
Mercer University, named in honor of Baptist Jesse Mercer, begins as Mercer Institute in 1833, in Penfield, Ga. In 1871, the University relocates to Macon, Ga. Samuel Hawkins notes that he donates money to Greenway Seminary, having crossed out the words 'Mercer University.'

Merritt, Anna Lewis, 1834-1877
Samuel Hawkins reports the sudden death on February 28, 1877 of Mrs. T. M. Merritt, wife of Dr. T. M. Merritt.

Milledgeville (Ga.)
One of two planned capital cities in the United States, the other being Washington D.C., Milledgeville is the capital of Georgia from 1803 to 1868. The fourth capital of Georgia, Milledgeville is named for John Milledge, Governor of Georgia and donor of the land for the University of Georgia, the first state-chartered American university. Situated on the fall line of the Oconee River, Milledgeville is chosen as the capital because of its central location and ample springs. The town plan finds inspiration in Savannah, Ga. and Washington, D.C. and includes four public squares with streets laid out in checkerboard fashion. The highest point overlooking the river is chosen as the location of the capital building. Considered one of the finest examples in the country of Gothic Greek Revival architecture, the building serves as the seat of government for the state of Georgia from 1803 to 1868, and the Secession Convention of 1861 is held in its legislative chambers. The building is partially destroyed by fire twice, and the present building, home to the Georgia Military College, is a replica of the original building. Samuel Hawkins relates that the Georgia State Agricultural Society meets in Milledgeville.

Minnesota
Samuel Hawkins notes that he writes a letter to S.C. Tennis West Baines of Minnesota to encourage immigration to southwest Georgia.

Mitchell House
The first major hotel in Thomasville, the Mitchell House is built in 1875 and is designed by New York architect J. A. Wood. The main dining room is fifty-two feet wide and seventy-five feet long. The hotel features a rotunda, large bedrooms, open fireplaces, rooms with private baths, gas, electric bells, and furniture chosen by New York art decorators. In 1907, the Mitchell House is partially converted to office space. Samuel Hawkins describes visiting the Mitchell House during the Thomasville Fair. The hotel burns in 1883, but is replaced by 1885.

Mize, J. W. (Joseph William), ca. 1846-1921
Samuel Hawkins reports that Mize wins the election for sheriff in 1877. Mize is still sheriff in 1879.

Monroe County(Ga.)
In 1821, the Treaty of Indian Springs cedes to the U.S. Government Creek land between the Ocmulgee and the Flint Rivers. Monroe is one of five counties created from the ceded lands. The original Monroe County included all of what will become Pike County and Upson County and parts of Bibb, Butts, and Spalding Counties. Monroe County is named for James Monroe, author of the Monroe Doctrine and fifth president of the United States. The county seat of Monroe County is Forsyth, named for Georgia statesman, Hon. John Forsyth, who, as United States Minister to Spain, negotiates the purchase of Florida in 1819 from King Ferdinand VII. Samuel Hawkins notes that his cousin Dolly Fletcher lives in Monroe.

Montgomery, J. N. (John N.)
Samuel Hawkins reports that J.N. Montgomery read an essay on "Improved Agricultural Implements & Farm Machinery" at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville. Montgomery is from Madison County. The 1860 Census reports that he owned twenty-seven slaves, indicating he is a plantation owner. Montgomery represented Madison County in the state legislature from 1865 to 1866.

Morely, Capt.
Samuel Hawkins reports that Captain Morely and he stay at the home of Dr. W. A. Jarrett during the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society.

Morgan, A. G.
Samuel Hawkins notes that on his trip to Dooly County, he visits A. G. Morgan, dining with him and conducting business with him for the bank.

Morgan, Bar G.
Samuel Hawkins notes that on his trip to Dooly County, he visits Bar G. Morgan.

Muckalee Creek (Ga.)
Muckalee Creek runs through southwest Georgia from Buena Vista past Americus to the Kinchafoonee River north of Albany. Samuel Hawkins notes that he goes with Mr. Loyless to examine his lands on Muckalee Creek near Americus.

Murry, W. W.
Samuel Hawkins reports that W. W. Murry wins the 1877 election for county coroner.

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Nevada
Samuel Hawkins notes February 21st that the electoral commission in the close presidential race between Hayes and Tilden is deciding where to allocate the electoral votes of Nevada.

New York
Samuel Hawkins mentions that Senator S. S. Cox comes from New York to give a speech to benefit the Wide Awake Fire Company.

Norris, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Mr. Norris and his family while attending the Thomasville Fair.

Nussbaum & Dannonbergh
The Dannenbergs and Nussbaums are newcomers to Macon, Ga. after the Civil War. Myron Nussbaum and Joseph Dannenberg join forces to create one of Macon's chief merchandising firms, Nussbaum & Dannenberg. In 1880, the firm expands to a new building and records sales of one million. Nussbaum & Dannenburg have twenty-two employees and five drummers at the time. Myron Nussbaum dies in 1894 during the financial depression. A leading merchant, Nussbaum is the first to build a large wholesale storehouse. He is also a leader in many civic projects. Samuel Hawkins relates that "Nussbaum & Dannonbergh" purchase and move out the stock of his tenant, L. B. Frank, during the night and load it onto rail cars. As L. B. Frank owes money to Hawkins, Hawkins secures an injunction preventing the departure of the stock to Macon, which affords him time to negotiate a settlement with Nussbaum & Dannonbergh.

Oregon
Samuel Hawkins notes February 21st that the electoral commission in the close presidential race between Hayes and Tilden is deciding where to allocate the electoral votes of Oregon. He is pessimistic that the committee will vote as a partisan band for Hayes.

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Parker, Barney
Samuel Hawkins credits Parker as one of those who help him take subscription notes or stock notes to the Americus Fair Association when the City Council reneges on its offer to pay for part of the park and fairgrounds.

Pendleton, E. M.
While at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville, Samuel Hawkins notes that the experimental farm report by Professor E. M. Pendleton is quite interesting. Records of the Georgia State Agricultural Society meeting of 1877 show that because Pendleton is ill, he does not deliver the address personally.

Phil West Home Place
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he looks over the Phil West homeplace while in Lee County. Phil West marries Susan Green.

Pleasant's
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he visits Pleasant's on a trip to Dooly County.

Pope place
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he looks over the J. H. Pope place in Lee County.

Pope, J. H.
Major J. H. Pope is placed in charge of raising provisions and training soldiers for the Confederacy. He operates a tan yard and makes shoes for the Confederate armies. Samuel Hawkins mentions that he looks over the J. H. Pope place in Lee County.

Preston (Ga.)
Originally known as Lannahassee, Preston is the first white settlement in Georgia following the Creek withdrawal. The town is incorporated in 1857 and renamed to honor United States Senator William C. Preston of South Carolina. Preston is the county seat of Webster County, which is originally Kinchafoonee County. Samuel Hawkins notes that he tries a case at the county courthouse in Preston. The subsequent county courthouse, built in 1915, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Price, J. L.
A private in Cutt's Artillery, Price fights in the engagement at Drainsville under General J. E. B. Stuart, December 20, 1861. Severely outnumbered, the company loses twenty horses and six men, with fifteen wounded. Sergeant Major J. D. Harris praises Price for his cool demeanor and courage in battle, remarking that Price deserves to be listed among Georgia's heroes. Samuel Hawkins reports that J. L. Price runs unsuccessfully for clerk of the Superior Court in 1877. In 1882, Price is a committee member in a Methodist organization that assists poor children, aged persons, and poor young men interested in entering the ministry.

Pursley
Samuel Hawkins notes that he attends the funeral for Captain Pursley's child.

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Raiford, A. B.
Samuel Hawkins notes that A. B. Raiford runs unsuccessfully for tax receiver in the 1877 Sumter County election.

Rees, A. L.
Samuel Hawkins relates that A. L. Rees is the bookkeeper of the Bank of Americus until he becomes chronically ill and has to be replaced in 1877. Hawkins hires Charley T. Furlow to replace him.

Reese, W. J.
Samuel Hawkins notes that Dr. W. J. Reese reads an essay on fruit culture at a meeting of the Sumter County Agricultural Society.

Root et al.
Samuel Hawkins notes that he is pleased by the notice that the Supreme Court of the U.S. decides the case of Stewart v. Root et al. in favor of Stewart.

Ruger, Thomas Howard, 1833-1907
Born in Lima, New York, Ruger graduates from the United States military academy in 1854. He briefly works on the defenses of New Orleans, Louisiana, resigning in 1855. Until the Civil War, Ruger practices law in Janesville, Wisconsin. Near the beginning of the Civil War, on June 29, 1861, Ruger becomes lieutenant colonel of the 3rd Wisconsin regiment. He is soon promoted to colonel August 20 and commands the 3rd Wisconsin in Maryland and the Shenandoah Valley until August 1862, after which he participates in the northern Virginia and Maryland campaigns. After Ruger is commissioned brigadier general of volunteers on November 29, 1862, he leads a brigade in the Rappahannock campaigns and commands a division at Gettysburg. In New York City, during the summer of 1863, Ruger aids the suppression of the draft riots. Afterward he guards the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad in Tennessee until April 1864, when he leads a brigade in Sherman's advance into Georgia. With a division of the 23rd corps, Ruger takes part in the campaign against General Hood in Tennessee, during which his service at the battle of Franklin earns him the brevet of major general of volunteers. Ruger organizes a division at Nashville and leads it from February to June, 1865, in North Carolina. After the end of the war, Ruger has charge of the North Carolina state department until June 1866, when he is mustered out. He accepts a colonelcy in the regular army in July 1866, and is brevetted brigadier general in the United States Army in March 1867 for his service at Gettysburg. In January 1868, Major General George W. Meade, commander of the 3rd Military District, forces Georgia Governor Charles J. Jenkins out of office and makes Ruger the provisional governor of Georgia from January to July. Afterward Ruger superintends the United States Military Academy from 1871 to 1876. From 1876 to 1877, Ruger is in charge of the Department of the South, occupying Columbia, South Carolina. After President Hayes ends the occupation of South Carolina, Ruger commands posts in the south and west and is promoted to brigadier general in 1886. Two years later, Ruger retires from active military duty.

Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878
The Russo-Turkish War is actually one of a series of wars that span over 200 years. When Turkey ferociously puts down a revolt in Serbia, Russia jumps at the opportunity to declare war on Turkey. Russia hopes to re-unite Eastern Orthodox Christians and Slavs in European Turkey under Russian rule and gain a warm-sea port on the Mediterranean. On January 30, 1878, after the Russians advance to the last line of Turkish defense at Chataja, only twenty miles from Constantinople, the two powers sign an armistice agreement. The Treaty of San Stefano gives so much land to Russia and Bulgaria that the European powers call a conference to revise its terms, resulting in a realignment of alliances in 1878. Hawkins mentions that the price of cotton rises in response to the conflict between Russia and Turkey.

Rylander, E. M.

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Sadler's Mill
The Sadler family comes to Lee County, Ga. from Putnam County before 1860. They are farmers with a grist mill and general store in the Chokee District of Lee County. Sadler's Mill Pond is in the Chokee District. Samuel Hawkins mentions that he receives an invitation to attend a barbecue at Sadler's Mill in Lee County. Theophelus Sadler is born in North Carolina in 1810 and dies in Lee County, Ga. before 1870. He is married to Elvira Sparks in 1837. Their only child, William Theophelus Sadler, is born in 1839 in Putnam County, Ga. and marries Tempy Green. They have six children. W. T. Sadler's second wife is Mary Elizabeth Whitsett, a widow with a daughter.

Sanford, Henry H.
In 1873, Henry H. Sanford of Thomasville buys all of John Stark's orchards and vineyards and renames the property the Dixie Nursery. Sanford's nursery is a success, and he soon begins issuing an annual catalogue advertising fruit, ornamental trees, shrubbery, and grapevines. Sanford features peaches, apples, grapes, and flowers as well as the LeConte pear. He is active in the South Georgia Pear Growers Association. At one time he has three hot-houses. Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Sanford at the 1877 Thomasville Fair. In 1877, Stark joins Sanford in an unsuccessful attempt to introduce silk culture into the country.

Scarborough, Nes
Samuel Hawkins reports that N. Scarborough is elected county surveyor in 1877. Later Hawkins mentions that Scarborough accompanies him to the Adams place, thirteen miles from Americus.

Schley County (Ga.)
Schley County is organized in 1856, derived from land cut off from Macon, Sumter, and Marion Counties. The county is named after Georgia Colonial Governor William Schley. Ellaville is the current county seat. The coastal plain climate supports cotton, corn, peanuts, wheat, pecans, and peaches. Samuel Hawkins notes that Schley is in the same political district as Sumter County. Hawkins also reports that he buys the patent rights to make and rend the Bell Cultivator in Schley.

Schumpert, A. K. (Amos K.)
Schumpert marries Sarah "Sallie" Pickett and becomes a partner in her father's plantation supply and equipment business. Schumpert also owns a livery stable and retail shoe store. A member of the Americus City Council in 1877, Schumpert helps Samuel Hawkins raise money for the Americus Fair Association through the sale of stock. Hawkins records that Schumpert is in favor of purchasing Furlow's Lawn for a park and fairground, with the city council paying part of the price of the land along with the Americus Fair Association. When the city council withdraws its support, Schumpert goes around town with Hawkins and John W. Jordan, Jr. selling stock in the fair to raise the money for the land.

Scott, Joseph B.
Samuel Hawkins relates that Jos. B. Scott is recommended, along with T. M. Furlow and Dr. G. F. Cooper, as a candidate to the Constitutional Convention.

S.C. Tennis West Baines
Samuel Hawkins notes that he writes a letter to S. C. Tennis West Baines of Minnesota to encourage immigration to southwest Georgia.

Seals, John H.
Samuel Hawkins mentions that Seals gives the literary address at the Furlow Masonic Female College commencement. At the time, Seals is the publisher of the Sunny South.

Seward, James Lindsay, 1813-1886
Born in Dublin, Laurens County, Ga., Seward attends the common schools and moves with his parents to Thomas County in 1826. He studies law, is admitted to the bar in 1835, and commences practice in Thomasville, Thomas County, Ga. Seward is a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1835 to 1839, and in 1847, 1848, 1851, and 1852. He is elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-fifth Congresses prior to the Civil War (March 4, 1853 to March 3, 1859). Seward is not a candidate for renomination in 1858 as he resumes the practice of law and becomes a planter. Nevertheless, he remains active in politics on the state level, serving as a delegate to the Democratic State conventions in 1858, 1859, and 1860 and in the State senate from 1859 to 1865. Seward is also a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions at Charleston and Baltimore in 1860. From 1860 to his death, Seward serves on the board of trustees of Young's Female College and from 1865 to his death in 1886, serves on the board of trustees of the University of Georgia. After the Civil War, James L. Seward is among three men selected to represent Thomas County at the 1865 Georgia Constitutional Convention. In 1870, he is a delegate to the Democratic Conservative Convention and in 1877, a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention. Seward is active outside of politics as well. In 1866, Seward helps found the Thomas County Agricultural Association, which is replaced by the Thomas County Agricultural Society, and is formed for the exchange of experience and ideas. In the 1870s, Seward opens a real estate office and advises land owners to cut up their land and sell it to white immigrants. He organized an immigration society in 1876 and asked landowners to furnish descriptions and prices of land they have for sale. Ten thousand copies of a pamphlet produced by the immigration society are sent to the Midwest and New England. However, there is no immediate response, and by 1879, the society is inactive. Seward's property ultimately becomes Glen Arven, a game preserve, and one of the first country clubs in the United States. Samuel Hawkins notes that he meets Judge Hopkins, son-in-law of "Colonel James Seward," at the Thomasville Fair.

Shackleford place
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he goes to the Shackleford place with Merrel Callaway and S. T. Jenkins and returns at night, presumably for business purposes, but does not indicate the location.

Sheppard (Shepperd)
Samuel Hawkins bemoans the arrival of Sheppard, "a colored emigrant agent," who has come back to town to recruit laborers to work in Louisiana. Hawkins organizes a town meeting to devise ways to get rid of Sheppard, to whom Hawkins also refers as "Shepperd." The town meeting resolves to appoint a committee of seven to wait on Sheppard, which gives him two days to get out of town with the fifteen people he has already recruited. Since Hawkins makes no further references to the situation, it is likely that the committee scares Sheppard away.

Smith, N. A.
Colonel N. A. Smith, a lawyer, serves as the third mayor of Americus. In 1876, he is appointed a delegate by the Democratic Party of Americus to the Third Congressional District convention in Macon, where delegates to the National Democratic Convention in St. Louis are chosen. Samuel Hawkins reports that N. A. Smith is one of the defense attorneys assigned to Charley Thomas, the alleged murderer of Mrs. James Carraway. In 1883, the Presbyterian church sells its building and begins construction of a new sanctuary on the site of N. A. Smith's law office. In 1887, Smith is among the directors of a company which builds a rail line from LaCrosse to Americus.

Smithville (Ga.)
Smithville is in Lee and Sumter Counties, and lies twelve miles south of Americus. Samuel Hawkins notes that three coaches from Smithville join the seven coaches from Americus enroute to Macon for a Sunday school excursion.

South Carolina
Samuel Hawkins mentions that the people of South Carolina, and the rest of the South as well, are grateful when President Hayes ends Federal occupation of Columbia in early April 1877, recalling General Ruger from Columbia.

Southwestern Judicial Circuit
In 1840, Sumter County becomes part of the new Southwestern Judicial Circuit, which includes the counties of Lee, Macon, Schley, Stewart, and Webster. Before 1840, Sumter County has been part of the Chattahoochee Circuit. Samuel Hawkins relates the death of James M. Clarke, judge of the Southwestern Circuit from 1868 to 1877, and the subsequent appointment of Charles F. Crisp in 1877. Crisp serves until 1882, when he campaigns for and wins a seat with the Forty-Eighth Congress, which convenes in 1883.

South Western Railroad Company (Ga.)
The Southwestern Railroad is organized at Macon in 1847. T. M. Furlow leads the citizens of Americus to purchase enough stock in the railroad to ensure the deflection of the route to Americus, and the first train arrives in 1854. The Southwestern Railroad Company constructs the Central line in 1860, and in 1869 the Southwestern Railroad Company leases its lines to the Central Rail Road and Banking Company of Georgia.

Spann, W. F.
Samuel Hawkins reports that W. F. Spann endorses W. C. Stalling, the principal defendant in a case brought by the Bank of Americus at the Webster County courthouse in Preston. The Bank of Americus wins the case.

Speer, A. C.
Samuel Hawkins reports that A. C. Speer wins the 1877 election for tax collector.

Stalling, W. C.
Stalling is the principal defendant in a case brought by the Bank of Americus at the Webster County courthouse in Preston; the Bank of Americus wins.

Stevens, J. S.
Samuel Hawkins mentions that Dr. J. S. Stevens gives a fine essay at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville. Transactions of the Georgia State Agricultural Society does not preserve Stevens' essay, but does preserve his testimony against the superstition that hogs should not be killed during a waning moon.

Stewart
Samuel Hawkins notes that he is pleased by the notice that the Supreme Court of the U.S. decides the case of Stewart v. Root et al. in favor of Stewart.

Stokes, Gilbert McKay, 1825-1898
A resident of Leesburg, Judge G. M. Stokes is born in Pike County and dies in Lee County. He marries the former Margaret Pickens Harris. The self-made Stokes proves a great financial success. Samuel Hawkins mentions plans to meet with Stokes on a trip to Lee County. Later, Stokes stays with the Hawkins family while visiting Americus. In May 1877, Hawkins mentions a meeting of the directors of the Bank of Americus to consider Stokes' request for more aid.

Sumter County (Ga.)
Sumter County, formed in 1831, is located between Columbus, Albany, and Macon. Americus, founded in 1832, is the county seat. Sumter also encompasses Plains, the hometown of United States President Jimmy Carter.

Sumter County Agricultural Society
Samuel Hawkins reports that the Sumter County Agricultural Society conducts meetings once or twice a month in the county courthouse. Members read essays on new farming techniques. Hawkins mentions that he is a member of the executive committee. The vigor of the Society indicated by Hawkins may be a response to the 1876 editorial by Colonel Hancock of the Republican deploring the apparent failure of the Society, which had been organized by a group of prominent planters a few years previously.

Sumter County Court House
In 1839, a two-story, wood-frame courthouse is completed in the center of the town square in Americus. In 1853, this structure is moved, and a new brick courthouse built in its place. Samuel Hawkins relates that Sumter County Agricultural Society meetings, town meetings, Americus Fair Association meetings, and regional political meetings are held in the 'Court House,' which presumably refers to the Sumter County Courthouse. Several years after Hawkins writes, in 1883, the General Assembly authorizes a referendum to be held in Sumter County to allow the county to borrow up to $30,000 to construct a new courthouse. Designed by Atlanta architects Bruce & Morgan, the courthouse is used until 1959, when the present courthouse is completed.

Sumter County Horticultural Society
Samuel Hawkins notes that a Horticultural Society meeting follows an Agricultural Society meeting at the Sumter County Court House.

Sumter County (Ga.). Superior Court
Samuel Hawkins mentions that he procures a charter for the Americus Fair Association from the Superior Court of Sumter County. The Sumter County Superior Court is organized in 1832, and a court house is built by 1834. The superior courts are the highest ranking courts in Georgia with original and general trial jurisdiction. They have exclusive jurisdiction in cases of divorce and felonies (except juvenile cases). They also try cases concerning titles to land and equity cases.

Swan, Maggie
Samuel Hawkins mentions Maggie Swan among those who attend the Sunday school excursion to Macon.

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Taylor, Susan, d. 1877
First wife of Ezekial Taylor. Samuel Hawkins reports her sudden death on March 1, 1877.

Taylor, Seth Kellum, ca. 1812-1895
A native of Pulaski County, Taylor lives on his plantation in Lee County as a young man. When he moves to Americus, he builds a large house on a rural road east of the community, which is later named Taylor street in his honor. Taylor is married three times, to the former Permelia Ann Coley of Pulaski County in 1830, the former Amanda E. M. Porter of Baker County in 1837, and the former Harriett L. Van Valkenburg from New York City, whom Taylor marries in Macon in 1858. Van Valkenburg is the sister of Mrs. W. D. Haynes and Mrs. D. K. Brinson and an aunt of Mrs. Arthur Rylander of Americus. Samuel Hawkins mentions visiting with S. K. Taylor in April.

Tharp, B. F.
Samuel Hawkins mentions hearing Tharp preach twice in one day.

Thomas, Joe
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Thomas and his family at the Thomasville Fair.

Thomasville Fair
Samuel Hawkins attends the spring horticultural fair held by the Thomas County Agricultural Society. Beginning in 1873, the fairs are soon awarding premiums for vegetables, flowers, and fruits. President John G. Dekle arranges additional attractions. At the initial event, a panel of three bachelors and two unmarried women judge a baby contest, awarding a five dollar prize. During the next few years, the Agricultural Society, with the aid of the Agricultural and Mechanical Association, continues to sponsor the horticultural fair, which draws large crowds from surrounding areas. By 1876, medieval tournaments (the winner receives a saddle), baseball, dances, and sack races are added. The horticultural fair continues until 1879, but the Agricultural Society loses momentum and only holds annual meetings afterward.

Thomasville (Ga.)
Thomas County is created in 1825 from parts of Irwin and Decatur Counties by legislation introduced by Thomas J. Johnson, who builds and owns Pebble Hill Plantation. In 1826, Thomasville is established as the county seat. The city and county may be named for Major General Jett Thomas, a member of the State Militia during the War of 1812. Thomasville becomes the center of educational, political, social, economic, and religious activities. Thomas County never completely depends on cotton, but is known also for tobacco and pears. Samuel Hawkins relates that he receives pear rootlets from an acquaintance in Thomasville, and he is so impressed by the Thomasville fair, that he decides Americus must have a fair of its own.

Tilden, Samuel J. (Samuel Jones), 1814-1886
Born in New Lebanon, N.Y., Tilden studies law at New York University and is admitted to the bar in 1841. He becomes a successful corporation lawyer. Particularly skilled at reorganizing and refinancing railroads, he amasses a fortune in fees and investments in railroads, iron mines, and real estate. As he becomes a rich, conservative businessman, Tilden aligns himself with the Democratic party. During the Civil War, he begins to fear a centralized government in Washington, and later condemns Radical Reconstruction. Renowned as a reformer for breaking up the Tweed Ring that controls New York City politics, Tilden is elected Governor of New York in 1874. His outstanding gubernatorial record secures him the 1876 Democratic presidential nomination. He opposes Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio in the bitter campaign. Although Tilden appears to win the popular vote, electoral votes in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina are contested. An Electoral Commission of eight Republicans and seven Democrats is assigned by Congress to allocate the electoral votes from the three contested states; it is no surprise that the states go to Hayes. Tilden refuses to be considered in the elections that follow. Three million of his five million dollar estate help found the New York Public Library.

Thomas, Charley
Samuel Hawkins relates that Thomas, an African American who Hawkins refers to as Charles Tommy, is the alleged murderer of Mrs. Carraway. Accounts report that Thomas had worked for Carraway. He is protected from lynching and brought to trial, where he receives a hasty conviction and sentence to hang. An account of the incident, including his purported confession, appears in the April 20, 1877 issue of the Weekly Sumter Republican, and his hanging appears in the May 25, 1877 issue.

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United States. Congress. House
Samuel Hawkins relates that on January 26th news arrives of the passage of the election counting bill by the House of Representatives to decide the allocation of electoral votes from contested states in the 1876 presidential election. A committee of eight republican and seven democratic representatives is assigned to vote on the allocation of electoral votes from each contested state. Not surprisingly, this controversial ploy results in a win for the Republican candidate, Hayes.

United States. Congress. Senate
Samuel Hawkins reports that on January 26th news arrives of the election of Benjamin Harvey Hill to the United States Senate.

United States. Electoral Commission (1877)
Congress attempts to establish an impartial panel to decide between Hayes and Tilden in the disputed election of 1876. The court appoints five members from the House, five from the Senate, and five justices from the Supreme Court. The commission is designed to have seven Republicans, seven Democrats, and one Independent. However, when the Independent, Supreme Court Justice David Davis of Illinois, decides instead to accept an appointment to his state's vacant Senate seat, he is replaced with a Republican. The Republicans vote as a block, giving the presidency to Hayes, the Republican candidate.

Varnedoe, L. L.
In 1869, Varnedoe moves to Thomas County and introduces the LeConte pear tree. By the early 1880s, Varnedoe and others are shipping pears to Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. In March 1892, Varnedoe is elected president of the newly formed South Georgia Pear Growers Association. Varnedoe secures a refrigerated car and experiments with shipping iced pears. Samuel Hawkins reports meeting Varnedoe during the 1877 Thomasville Fair.

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Wallen, J. G.
Samuel Hawkins reports that Wallen loses the race for County Ordinary in 1877.

Webster County Court House
Preston is the county seat of Webster County. Samuel Hawkins notes that he tries a case at the county courthouse in Preston, referring to it as Preston Court. The subsequent county courthouse, built in 1915, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Welch, Mr.
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Welch, a resident of Albany, at the Thomasville Fair. This may be a reference to a merchant named Welch, of the store Welch & Mitchell in 1879.

Weston, Capt.
Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Captain Weston, a resident of Albany, at the Thomasville Fair. This may be a reference to S. R. Weston, who owns a cotton factory and warehouse.

Wharton, M. B., Rev.
Samuel Hawkins relates that Reverend Wharton convinces him to donate $100 to Greenway Seminary, comprised of $20 in cash and $80 in notes. Reverend Wharton is a temporary president of the Americus Library Association.

Wheatley, John Wright, 1833-1910
Samuel Hawkins relates that "Wheatley" is present at a meeting of the finance committee of the Baptist Church. This is probably a reference to John Wright Wheatley, one of the most influential men in Americus. J. W. Wheatley is born in Virginia and comes to Americus as a young man in 1850. He works as a clerk in the general store owned by his cousin, R. T. McCay. When the business is sold, Wheatley and McCay's brother, Henry Kent McCay, open a drug business. When McCay withdraws to practice law, Wheatley spends several years with his family in Pennsylvania before returning to become a bookkeeper for Kendrick & Johnson, general merchants. During Sherman's occupation of Atlanta, Wheatley serves as aide-de-camp to General Henry Kent McCay. In 1866, Wheatley joins with his brother-in-law W. H. C. Dudley to establish J.W. Wheatley & Company, a banking house affiliated with William Bryce & Company, a respected New York firm. In 1887, Wheatley joins with others to form the Bank of Southwestern Georgia. In 1897, Wheatley ascends to the presidency of the Bank of Southwestern Georgia, a position which he holds until 1905. Wheatley is also among the directors of a plan to build a railroad from LaCrosse to Americus. His wife is the former Mary Dudley.

White, Henry Clay, b. 1848
Samuel Hawkins reports that Professor White reads an interesting article entitled "Forms of Phosphoric Acid Available as Plant Food" at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society in Milledgeville. Minutes of the meeting note that Professor White is allowed to read his essay ahead of schedule so he can leave Milledgeville in the afternoon. His essay reports the results of a three year research project to determine the effectiveness of bone phosphate as fertilizer. The minutes further note that after Professor White's address, Judge Vason praises his work and moves that it be published with the proceedings of the Society. Professor White indicates in his address that he is affiliated with the State College of Agriculture, a department of the University of Georgia.

Wide Awake Fire Company
Originally called the Americus Hook and Ladder Co. No. 1, the Wide Awake Fire Company elects officers in 1868, shortly before the arrival of its first steam fire engine. Samuel Hawkins relates that U.S. Representative S. S. Cox gives a lecture to benefit the Wide Awake Fire Company.

Wiggins, Ike
Samuel Hawkins notes that he dines with Wiggins while at J. L. Matthews' place in Lee County.

Willet, W. W.
Samuel Hawkins notes that he visits with W. W. Willet while visiting J. W. Furlow.

Williams, Hiram J.
Samuel Hawkins reports that H. J. Williams wins the race for County treasurer in 1877.

Willingham, Thomas A.
A resident of Albany, Willingham is the wealthiest planter in Dougherty County by 1870. Faced with surly workers following the Civil War, he asks the Freedman's Bureau official General Tillison to procure 200 boys and girls to work on his farm. Samuel Hawkins notes that he meets Tom Willingham, a resident of Albany, at the Thomasville Fair.

Wilson, W. A. (William A.), d. 1910
Wilson is an early instructor at Furlow Masonic Female College. When the Sumter County school system is created in 1872, Wilson is one of the first members of its board of education, elected by a superior court grand jury. At their first meeting, Wilson is chosen secretary and county commissioner, and he serves ten years as county school superintendent. Samuel Hawkins mentions that Wilson accompanies him to the Georgia State Agricultural Society meeting in Milledgeville in 1877. According to Hawkins' journal, Wilson presides at meetings of the Sumter County Agricultural Society in his capacity as vice president, and Hawkins notes that at one of the meetings, Wilson reads an essay on crop rotation. In 1883, the state legislature appoints Wilson to a committee of seven organized to investigate the desirability of a state school of technology. The committee investigates schools in New York City and Boston, and upon their return recommends establishing such a school in Georgia, which becomes the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Windsor, R. S. (Richard Silas), 1838-1910
Samuel Hawkins notes that Windsor is on the finance committee of the Baptist Church. This may be R. S. Windsor, who Hawkins reports loses the race for County Ordinary. Richard Silas Windsor is the brother of John Windsor, for whom the Windsor Hotel is named.

Worrill, John R.
Worrill is an early lawyer in Americus. Samuel Hawkins notes that Worrill speaks against the Constitutional Convention.

Wright, Augustus Romaldus, 1813-1891
Colonel A. R. Wright commands the Thirty-eighth Georgia Infantry. From 1840 to 1849, he is a judge on the Superior Court of the Cherokee Circuit. He serves in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1857 to 1859 and as part of the provisional Confederate Congress. Samuel Hawkins mentions meeting Colonel Wright at the meeting of the Georgia State Agricultural Society.

Wynn, John H.
Samuel Hawkins reports that Wynn loses the race for County treasurer.



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