Digital Library of Georgia > Cyrus F. Jenkins Civil War Diary, 1861 - 1862

Document: cfj

Diary, 1861 June 11 - 1862 Mar. 30


author: Jenkins, Cyrus Franklin, ca. 1837-1864
date: June 11, 1861-March 30, 1862
extent: 1 v. (113 p.)
repository: Troup County Archives, LaGrange, Ga.
collection: Jenkins-Bass collection, 1861-ca. 1900 (Ms. 91)




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CYRUS F. JENKINS BOOK, JUNE 11 1861

Joined a volinteer [volunteer] Co. [Company] from Merriwether [Meriwether] County, Ga. [Georgia] called the Meriwether vol [volunteers] for the service of the Confederate States of America. And bid adieu to Home, Relatives, and Friends and every tie that is dear to man for the protection of rights, that should be dearer to man than life itself,

Since those rights were bought with the price of (our revolutionary grand sires) blood, & bequeathed to us for our enjoyment, and generations to come, Although common sense teaches us that if our Ancestors were right in in those dearly bought rights which we have inherited from them, that we are justifyable [justifiable] in preserving sacred, yea! more, If we should shrink from the responsibility through cowardice or any motive of selfishness we should justly deserve the condemnation of all civalized [civilized] nations of the earth, and and the indignation and scorn of generations to come, Yet while these thoughts are [word cut off page] through my mind, others are flashing


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over me filling the mind with imaginary scenes of horror, shocking every nerve and cording ever [every] muscle, [deleted text: more] like an electrick [electric] shock it pervades the whole system with feelings and emotions indescribable, The Idea's [Ideas] of putting ones own body a target to be shot at, and taking mans life, even upon the field of battle, will shock the most insensible and inhumane mind, yet I feel it a duty, and the sin must and will fall upon the aggressor's heads

We arrived at Griffin Ga. [Georgia] at 2 o clock [o'clock] in the afternoon. and took refuge in an old vacated mansion, called the old [deleted text: mansion] [added text: castle] without door or window shutter blind or sash but stood a lofty wreck of three stories high, long vacated and badly weather beaten, Here we remained untill [until] the 10th, without any excitement or occurrence of importance, except I'll mention the kindness and hospitality of the people, who sent us cakes fruits vegetables and nic nacks [knickknacks] too tedious to mention, all very palitable [palatable], and we –all– shared equally in its [unclear text: portion] .

[pages 3-6 missing]


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miles from one depot to the other, through the rain which continued to fall thick & fast we were accomodated to a nice supper of warm coffee light bread & butter After which we took the train for Columbia S–C, [South Carolina] Although the night closed in dark and the rain continued to fall the Ladies met us at each depot untill [until] a late hour at night with fruits cakes cigars and other nice eatables, with every [deleted text: nice] accommodation that could be extended and every cheering word that could be spoken we were the welcome participants, which made our hearts grow strong and rejoice in the day that we offered our service for their protection. We travilled [traveled] through the night which continued dark and dreary, untill [until] day broke in followed by the bright rays of an unclouded sun. arrived at Columbia 9 oclock [o'clock] in the morn, where we expected to remain some time, [deleted text: my] the first scene that attracted my attention was Mrs. Hamptons flower yard,


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which contained every flower and fruit bush of American growth with many of other climates, the orange tree with its fruit green and growing was a sight of astonishment to me although it was enclosd [enclosed] in a large frame work [framework] of glass, to add to its beauty was its systematic and tasteful formation, the next thing that attracted attention was an imitation of the Palmetto Tree (in the State house yard) of cast mettal [metal] which I must acknowledge was a fine resemblance of the many natural Palmetto near Savannah, Ga [Georgia],

We left the above mentioned place about dark (July 28th) for Raleigh North Carolina, and reached said City at 2 oclock [o'clock] the following eve [evening] nothing of importance transpired along our rout [route], we were often cheered. by fair women, saluted by the stars and bars floating from the windows and portico's [porticos] of citizens houses near our way, as has been frequent heretofore. after taking dinner which was previously prepaired [prepared] for us. we began putting our bagage [baggage] abode [aboard] the train for Charlotte North Carolina.


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left Raleigh nine oclock [o'clock]


monday after noon [afternoon] 29th [View Jenkins Chronology]

after travelling [traveling] through the night we reached Charlott [Charlotte] at day light [daylight] . A nice dinner was prepared for us of Bread meats vegetables fruits and pies, after partaking of which, we strolled off into the city where I saw nothing striking, the city was considerable in its bounds nothing peculiar in its formation. water very strongly tinctured with lime except one spring we found on the stroll one half mile from the depot. we returned about nightfall and left at 11 oclock [o'clock] at night for Weldon N.C [North Carolina] and arrived at W. [Weldon] 7 oc [o'clock] in the morning of the 31st after morning broke in we saw upon one side the river far below, and upon the other rough cragged mountains rising high above us. On leaving Weldon about nine in the fore noon [forenoon] we were obliged to get abode [aboard] flad [flat] lumber cars which brought yells from the boys. some called hogs others Cattle and horses at the top of their voices telling plainly of their dissatisfaction the bystanders did not understand the cause yet they were well pleased and laughed heartily. I heard one of them remark that no


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one but a Georgian would think of such as that. We now soon found ourselves ratling [rattling] along the road for Petersburg Via. [Virginia] after many delays enrout [enroute] (for other trains to pass) we reached Petersburg 2 o.c. [o'clock] in the afternoon after search ing [searching] through the city and across the river near a spring we found a table prepared for our benefit of which we readily partook of its nourishing contents, we by this time being very hungry our rations having sometime previously given out, after a hearty repast of irish potatoes boiled collards and dry light bread. (called by the boys waspnest [wasp nest] bread) we strolled down to the river and availed ourselves of its refreshing and cooling influence. we now proceeded to the Petersburg and Richmond depot where all hands were [deleted text: all] engaged in putting the baggaged [baggage] abode [aboard] . after which, 5, oc [o'clock] we were flying in the direction of our destination. now all were alive to the rising excitement as we neared the wished for City. some singing to the tune of Dixy [Dixie] others yelling at the top of their voices, while the others were following


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different avocations all busy alike in their avocations which were indicative of their feelings and the excitement which pervaded every mind untill [until] all at once (to my astonishment) all was as still as death. not a sound above mans breath could be heard. The speedy and never tiring iron horse. had brought us unexpectedly (to many) upon the high and legnthy [lengthy] bridge (across the James river) which seemed to be suspended in the air without pillow or foundation, (the flat bridge was covered below the track hiding from sight the heavy stone pillows rising from the water beneath) when we neared the land loud yells broke the spell and reverberated through the air. which contrasted strongly with the dead calm. and now all was hushed again? the cars now backing upon the high & creaking bridge untill [until] two third of its distance is recrossed [re-crossed], now it stops and all is still. again it moves on and the loud yells break the stillness like a harp of a thousand strings, but before the first sounds die out in the stillness of the night another dead calm ensues, we back again


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we have missed the right track. now we drive forward all right into the city. we now fell in battallion line, and march [marched] through the city, with cheers and huzzas for Georgia, by spectators who crowded the walks as we passed. after proceeding two miles from the city halted raised tents and retired to rest about 12, o.c [o'clock] at night. The following day we were excused from duty The forenoon I passed in sleep, the afternoon I Strolled off to the city to take a view of it and the scenes passing there. First I visited the State prison, was conducted through by the manager with respectful kindness, The first apartment we visited was the blacksmiths. the convics [convicts] paid no attention to what was going on around them, but kept steady at work, we next went into an extensive room, with many convics [convicts] and occupations. some shoe making, harness making, and others dressing and working lumber, some seemed indifferent to passing occurrents [occurrences], some appeared cast down, with eyes cast on the floor or their work, others idling their time and watching every manuvre [maneuver] passing. every one [everyone] seemed to have his business allotted him, and


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all seemed to be possessed of different feelings and sensibilities; and some perhapse [perhaps] of none. one thing I noticed peculiar in this room the men were dressed in clothes of two colors one leg of the pants of some were made of white osnaburg the other of blue cotton cloth some were marked in different manners, I supposed to designate their ranks as workmen, I next strolled along canal street which seemed a wreck of bad management filthy streets, half clad children. proverty [poverty] stricken women and dissipated men. I occasionly [occasionally] met an irish woman with a basket on her arm with a few tomatoes a cabbage and a few irish potatoes, just from the market house, perhaps with her forenoons earnings to feed a half dozen hungry children and perhapse [perhaps] a drunken vagabond husband, next to main and broad streets, nice clean paved, and business streets, as I santered [sauntered] along I was told that the yankee prisners [prisoners] were at the extremity of main street. I then directed my way there. after a long walk I found them. many were nice portly intiligent [intelligent] looking men


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others inferior in dress and appearance, some reading some conversing, others [deleted text: nothing] having nothing to say with sad appearance, It now being near night I returned to camps, with the conviction "That though Georgians might seek a better country, but it is not to be found. or at least, if I should ever live to see it freed from the invaders hand, I will be satisfied there to be buroughed [burrowed] and buried,, We are encamped in a clover field with nothing to obstruct the burning rays of the sun, which evinces all its dazling [dazzling] and suffocating influences, without even one gentle zephyr to refresh and cool our almost melting frames. The camping ground is on a high eminence yet beautiful and level; nearby runs a cold spring of pure water, a little past her, below runs the cool and refreshing waters of the canal of which we are not slow in availing ourselves of the oppertunity [opportunity] of [deleted text: its] enjoying its reviving influences. The duty of each soldier is allotted him and we have certain hours every day


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drill service, which is very heavy considering the intense hot weather. Two members from each company are allowed a pass to the city every day, accompanied by one non commissioned [noncommissioned] officer nothing occurs worthy of note above the common incidents of camp life, Occasionly [Occasionally] we are aroused from the dull monotonous daily scenes in camps. by the incoming of an intoxicated member of the regiment, who could scarcely fail to get up a quarrel which invariably ends in a fight. I should have said invariably progresses into a fight, for the end has not yet come, for the case is soon brough [brought] before a court martial, he him self [himself] taken under guard, and kept under the wach [watch] of a sentinel for a few days untill [until] the proceedings of the court can be read aloud on dress parade, for execution, which sentence is severe according to his crime & general Character, as a soldier,, some sentenced for drunkeness [drunkenness] to carrying a pole across the parade ground 4 hours each day for ten days. others for [line cut off]


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up stumps. one man for fighting was compelled to carry forty pounds of rock 4 hours each day for ten successive days. I mention this to show the restrictions under which we were obliged to come, not with any intention to personate or injure any one [anyone] unfortunately concerned,


Sunday night August the 7th 61 [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

Everything seems veiled in gloom, dark and impending clouds hang around us, which bespeak an approaching storm, now comes the howling wind and roaring rain, over turning [overturning] our bush harbors, now and then uprooting tents. now we hear the yells and shrieks of those enveloped in the fallen tents.—H-llow [Hellow] ! H-lfire [Hellfire] ! take it off! pull me out! Now the scene comes at home! one side of the tent is uprooted three of us at the same time grasped the stakes, one of my tent mates sick upon one side, another on the opposite side of the tent rolled in his blankets, perfectly at ease. with three sheets [line cut off]


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now poured in torrents. the wind soon with his rapid wings swept over, the tent adjusted, and we were [added text: soon] comfortably & calmly sleeping away the night.


Saturday evening August 24th [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

The 13th regiment is in an uproar of confusion and excitement consequent upon, An order from the Secretary of war, To take the flint lock musket and Join General John B. Floyds brigade now in Northwestern Virginia on Gauley River near the Dogwood gape. Several of the officers in the regiment refused, or affirmed that they would refuse to accept the flint lock musket or go untill [until] better guns were procured. This dissatisfaction caused a meeting of the commissioned officers. which resulted– after prolonged arguements– in an agreement to request a countermand of the order untill [until] better arms could be obtained and if rejected to accept them and proceed to carry out the orders. which we did, the request being rejected. a vote was also taken in each company to ascertain the number who were willing to [deleted text: try] go upon the battle field with these guns. Sixteen of


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Company (B, of which I am a member. voted in favor of taking them, of [deleted text: the which I] that (no I was one. I objected to the guns. but as no better could be had at the time. I felt it my duty to accept them. but all the voting, speaking & expressions of dissatisfaction are in vain consequently we have received orders, Sunday evening August 25th to cook five days rations of which we completed about ten oclock [o'clock] and retired to rest for an early rising.


monday morning five oclock [ o'clock], [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

Aroused and ordered to strike tents. and pack camping utencils [utensils] preparitory [preparatory] for reparing [repairing] to the Central R. R. [Rail Road] Depot. which place we reached about eight, were marched into the cars, of freight boxes with plank seats across them, and seated where we were compelled to remain untill [until] twelve oclock [o'clock], when to my great joy the whistle sounded and we were bidding richmond adieu for Staunton the place designated for us to receive arms and accoutrements. our Journey now seems a long one, the car being very much crowded our seats-without backs- are uncomfortable & to add to this the cars are making very slow speed . Now we [added text: are] passing an apple orchard. the trees


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hanging full of fruit. and the boys one after another [deleted text: are] are leaping from the cars like a flock of sheep crossing a hedge. each trailing after his file leader, and with the dexterity of youth, spirit of gaiety, desire for mischief, plunder and the delicious looking fruit, they leave the heavy laden engine and train in their wake, now each one busy as bees, gathering the fruit, with friends standing in each car door to draw them in on their return and share the fruits of their plunder, now all are safely seated in their cars and the apples are flying without wings.


Wednesday Morning July [August] 28th. Ten O.C [o'clock] [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

we are now rolling into the City of Staunton nearly three days almost steady traveling. Although the distance is not exceeding 100 miles. here we received our guns and left on the following morning 10 oclock [o'clock] and arrived at Jackson [deleted text: Depot] River Depot. (this being as far as the railroad is completed.) at 8, o.c [o'clock] in the evening of the same day.

The scenery along the railroad to this place is variegated beautiful sublime & brightful


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Sometimes we pass [deleted text: over] [added text: on] high mountains over precipices, from two to three hundred feet high. then through rich Vallies [Valleys], then through long dark tunnels to the debt [depth] of fifty or one hundred feet to the surface. Altogether filling the mind with awe and admiration, As we passed on the cars, we sometimes turned our eyes to one side. there we beheld steep rough banks, with cragged rock jutting out and over hanging us for hundreds of feet above, then upon the other side we look down into the buds of the tall pine and majestic oak in the valley below, which stretches out far in the direction to the winding Jackson river, foaming and lashing its way down its rough and rocky bed, a little farther and we see the beautiful valley abruptly breaking into high mountains presenting to the mind, the power of a mighty Creator.


Friday August 30th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

We are encamped near the bank of Jackson River, on the side of a high mountain. [deleted text: near]

[pages 21-24 missing]


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Sunday morning [deleted text: August] Sept [September] 1st. 61 [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I got permission permission to leave the camp for the purpose of going upon the mountain to get a view of the sourrounding [surrounding] country In company with a commissioned officer consequently I needed no written permission a thing that I abhored [abhorred] so much that I never gratified my curiosity in rambling unless by slipping, off or going with a commissioned officer, Although it may become necessary to carry a pass when near the enemy. then it is necessary that private and officer may account for themselfs [themselves] but here where no enemy is near, why should a private Soldier carry a pass. when an officer can go at will, for what — is an officer but a man! is he more honest because the privates have made him what he is? does his country feel dearer to him in consequence does it instill new principals and new patriot[added text: ism] in his bosom. or is it because he usurps the power that his fellow man has given him. I have digressed for enough.




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After hard clambering and much fatigue we gained the mountains summit. on looking around I could see nothing except a green forest below and a little farther the mountain peaks rising up with its green forest leaves flitting in the breeze. farther in the distance they seem like black cloud caps deeply tinged with blue. farther still and all is lost in the blue veil of the distance I now with the help of two comrades rolled off a massive stone. its motion at first was slow and gentle. but as it traversed the mountains slope it sped faster and faster, bounded higher & higher. untill [until] in its mad fury every obsticle [obstacle] yielded to its commands, and the falling timbers crashed amid its rumbling sounds like distant thunder;

Half past one afternoon. One hundred prisners [prisoners] of war are seen marching, by in rout [route] for Richmond. taken by Floyd. after it was fully understood that they were prisners [prisoners] . Although our sentinels were at their posts around the encampment. they were of no avail


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Officers Privates and all rushed to the depot to see them, with deafning [deafening] yells that made the mountains forest ring. I did not go myself, (being fatigue [fatigued] and a little sick) as soon as the officers had satisfied their curiosities. the Adutant [Adjutant] came through ordering each Captain to call the roll and report every one [everyone] absent. our roll was call [called] . and I answered for a half dozen absentees, others did the same untill [until] all were answered for. when there were not exceeding twenty present,


Tuesday. Sept [September] 3rd.. 61. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

We Start on a foot march to our destination, I feel unable to make the trip. but determined to go as far as possible. since every house is full of the sick. as twenty of our company is left here with measles. perhaps the same ratio from other companies making an aggregate of 200 from the regiment,

I together with three others were appointed wagon guard. where I could have my bagage [baggage] hauled. I soon became very much fatigued but I made no complaint, in the afternoon after traveling some twelve miles to Covington I was offered a drink of whiskey. as I had


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been recomended [recommended] by the assistant Surgeon to take no medicine. but take a little whiskey or brandy. I readily axcepted [accepted] the proposition. Although I am sure I did not take exceeding two table spoonsful [tablespoonfuls] . I soon found to my great surprise that I was becoming intoxicated or gentlemanly tight as is the common saying but the truth is I thought it the slackest time with me that I had seen, I soon forgot that I was sick. and went to playing pranks but I was very cautious to keep as far as possible from the Capt [Captain], I soon became very thirsty and the first spring that came to I ran to the spring in great haste to evade the Capt [Captain] . I asked a Soldier at the spring to fill my canteen that I was in great haste. he did so. but to [added text: my] discomfiture I met the Capt [Captain] where I could not avoid meeting him, I felt all over spotted. I held my breath for fear that he would ask me some question which I knew that I should be detected for my voice was changed femininely fine after I had thought that all was right I was horror stricken by — How does the


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water taste — Cy? not very good but better than it looks like it might. I did not even look up, although I knew that I could detect in his looks. his suspicions. yet I could make but one man believe that I had been. slack.. After 16 miles march we struck camp for the night, I felt perfectly exausted [exhausted], not having eat anything during the day except green apples. I now eat one biscuit and hope to get something for the next day and retired to rest,


Wednesday morning [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I must again march without one bite of anything to eat. we again strike camps after fifteen miles march. near the White Sulphur springs. without eating anything through the day except perhaps a peck of green apples. I now eat another biscuit, and retired to rest,


Thursday morning [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

the clouds are flying over us and the rain is falling thick and fast

ten oclock [o'clock] now ordered to pack up the bagage [baggage] to march (the rain has ceased falling) we proceeded to the springs above mentioned, I walked to the spring near the road,


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and dipped a glass, but it was so strongly tinctured that I could scarcely bear the smell I managed to take one sup, the air seemed impregnated with sulphur [sulfur], I soon hastened away to overtake the wagons. we proceed to Green Briar River where we stopped to take dinner & rest. The Lady who lived at the Bridge gave the soldiers a jar of (Sour milk) known by Georgians as butter milk. there was such a rush. by the men each wanting a share that I did not attempt to get any. those who were near the jar stooped to get theirs, and others [deleted text: clalled] [added text: crawled] upon their backs. and such a ratting of tin cups & canteens is seldom heard. I eat one biscuit. and attempted a bit of meat but could not stand it and was compelled to throw it aside the only nourishment I have taken except apples wild plums and red balls. which were abundantly thick, we now proceeded through Lewisburg and arrived at Brumboo's mill, four miles farther making 14 miles for to day [today], There is nothing of importance to relate concerning this place except Cox cave


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the rendesvous [rendezvous] of one Cox who deserted the army in the revolutionary war and remained here concealed during the space seven years a guard was stationed at its intrance [entrance] &— who would not allow any one [anyone] inter [enter], Cave spring is another curiosity worthy of notice. its inlet was immediately under that of Cox cave. Some ten or fifteen [added text: feet] [deleted text: below] [added text: under] the mountain and below its surface. was a clear running stream of water. which ran entirely under the earth. very cold although the weather was very warm, and less tinctured with lime than any around here, We have frequent rains which has filled the earth with water its surface is very muddy and slick there is no sand in the soil, and it is slicker than anything that I can compare it to except soft soap on a greezy [greasy] plank,, if you loose [lose] your balance you catch a fall, and take on a good supply of mud. which clings with the tenacity of wheat doe. at this place we have sport catching turtle which abundantly thick in a creek nearby. from 20-30 were caught. each day by digging the bank and grapling [grappling] the mud




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Monday Sept [September] 9th . 61 [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

We now proceed on our march having delayed here for several days to get up a greater supply of provision, and more transpotation [transportation] . which was procured by pressing into service. My health now having become good, I now travel with renewed spirits. everything seems to open new volums [volumes] to my mind, objects that seemed to be horrid, and frightful. frieks [freaks] of nature: now call forth emotions of supprise [surprise] and admiration, we arrived at Meadow Bluffs late in the evening after a march of about 12 miles, nothing of importance concerning this camp. we are I understand to remain here a day or two. the cause I know not.


Wednesday Sept [September] 11th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

Orders from Gen [General] Floyd to proceed immediately to him at Gauley River. to meet an expected attack. 5 oclock [o'clock] afternoon dress parade. orders read to have the bagage [baggage] packed by 5 oclock [o'clock] on the following morning. with one days rations cooked.


Thursday morning 5 oclock [o'clock], [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

all in readiness soon to be off for the River a distance of near 40 miles. to be reached in two days,, 11 oclock [o'clock] one of the bagage [baggage] wagons belonging to Co. [Company] (B) has broken down the guards detailed from each


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wagon to repair the injury. of which we did to the best of our ability. the regiment having proceeded without delay. 3 oc [o'clock] all right and again in motion. 2 1/2 miles farther. the wheel crushes, the other wagon ordered, on. of which I was a guard. The Capt [Captain] being left to superintend the repair. he now goes to press a wheel wherever he may find one. we proceeded; [deleted text: to] after a few miles we came to a fine apple orchard hanging with delicious fruit, I gave my gun to my collegue [colleague] with an intention to get a few, but as I was climbing over the fence. I was ordered by the owner not to go into his orchard. I thought it very hard, and he very heartless. after I had volunteerly [voluntarily] left my native state. and had been sent there to protect his property, family, and even himself who was. still enjoying the luxuries of his home, to deprive me of a few of the many thousand [added text: apples] he possessed. I had no right to them, but passed along with a small opinion of his generosity and humanity. night overhauled us at big sewell mountain 4 miles farther. and the rains began to pelt us in the face


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which continued to fall, in double quick time during the night, which was to me a dark and dismal nights march. – or properly float –, for the water was shoe mouth deep to deeper and I drenched in rain with a constant stream trictling [trickling] down my body into my boots. After continuing the march untill [until] 11 oclock [o'clock] we reached the regiment in camp for the night, I now lay myself on a man's piazer [piazza] floor, with my gun and catrige [cartridge] box for a pillow slept soundly the remainder of the night. although my clothing was drenched with water.


Friday morning [View Jenkins Chronology]

received orders from Gen. [General] Floyd to remain untill [until] farther [further] orders. the battle of Gauley river is now over. and although Floyd was victorious in killing (reports say) from eight to nine hundred with many wounded, to four killed and eight wounded, he is now on his retreat meeting us.


Saturday morning [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

ordered to pack up and retreat. of which we did one mile. and struck camp, and remained untill [until] the next


Thursday morning Sept [September] 19th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

when ordered to prepare for marching orders. 10 oclock [o'clock] all is ready. my first sight and impressions of Gen [General] Floyd. as I am now guarding the wagon on the turnpike he comes along


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and meets with a cavalry officer. I judge from his dress, Floyds orders to him, you take twenty five responsible men. and bring to me those men who have deserted their wagons. don't come without them, in chains. these are my orders. obey them. What a stern look. – and commanding voice! perhapse [perhaps] he'l [he'll] do, 10 oclock [o'clock] we again retreat for sewell mountain while resting on the way a gentleman belonging to our regiment was making inquiries, of a virginia Soldier concerning the yankees and the late fight, after many questions he remarked with much self confidence. that he wished he had been there. and that he would like they would come now, Oh! sais [says] the virginian you hav'nt [haven't] seen the elephant yet. if you had you would'nt [wouldn't] be quite so keen on the bit. Arrived at sewell 3 oclock [o'clock] in the afternoon. and prepaired [prepared] dinner after which we partook heartily and finished Just as the sun was sinking beyond the western hills, nothing peculiar about the campment [encampment] except a bold spring of pure water breaking from the very summet [summit] of the mountain. out of a massive rock which rose in perpendicular


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height from 30 to 50 ft above.


Sunday morning. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

five men detailed from each company making 50. from the regiment to fortify and make ready for an attact [attack] from the enemy. although a slow & steady rain had been falling since morning.


Monday Morning nine oclock [o'clock], [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

five more men detailed for the above mentioned purpose now we hear many floating and contradictory reports of the number condition and intention of the enemy, but the idea is general they are advancing,, evening a council to be held to determine the better course to pursue,, Night nine or ten oclock [o'clock], orders to strike tents and prepare to retreat in quick time. all soon done. 10 minutes to 11 oclock [o'clock], again on our line of march in retreat, which was taken for fear the enemy should take a cross country rout [route] and cut off our supplies. now the clouds begin to loom up thick and heavy veiling everything in gloomy darkness. yet we grope our way around frightful precipicies [precipices] a hundred feet deep, 12 oclock [o'clock], now the rain begins to fall thick and fast the


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road afloat with water. the earth as slick as glass. without even one star to guide our unfaltering footsteps, untill [until] about the dawn of day when the clouds cleared away, and the sun soon made it appearance and shown forth with all its beauty and brilliance, We arrived at meadow bluff 10 minutes to eleven being just 12 hours on the march 15 miles. very hungry for we had eat nothing during the day or previous night. I felt too much fatigued to undertake to prepare a meal and. lay myself to rest and soon fell asleep and the evening was passed in sound sleep, untill [until] five oclock [o'clock] when I was aroused to draw three days ration of provision to be cooked up the same night and be in readiness by 3 oclock [o'clock] the following morning to go on a scout of three days along the Wilderness road. to ascertain if the enemy anticipated coming in upon this road, we had just finished cooking and retired to rest. when at two oclock [o'clock] . the order was countermanded,


Tuesday

nothing of importance to day [today] .


Wednesday [View Civil War timeline for this date]

" " " " " [nothing of importance today]




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Thursday morning. [View Jenkins Chronology]

the regiment called into line with their arms, marched to a great heap of axes, spades, shovels, and picks. each man as he passed ordered to gather his weapon for labor. then marched 2 1/2 miles westward to Meadow River. on the side of the enemy from the camp. as we were passing to work. we were halted near a spring a few members of the line left the ranks to get water and were ordered back without it, we soon moved forward to the river and began to fortify on the eastward bank. the breast work is to be ten feet thick, of earth held by pens of rails and [deleted text: wood] [added text: logs], night about one third of our proportions finished.


Friday morning [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

again ordered to the breastwork. night after hard diging [digging] shoveling. throwing earth and building pens we retired to camps with two thirds of our portion complete.


Saturday [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

we finished our portion of the work and are freed from extra labor duty.


Sunday [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

several com [companies] of the reg [regiment] worked, not having finished


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their portion of the work, evening all the working party have come in and the fortification is completed. being only 5 miles in length along the bank of the river.


Monday, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

to day [today] I feel very weak & and feeble. from cold. with slight fevers. everything is still & Calm, in camps. Gen [General] Lee is here. " evening; ordered to cook one days ration and have the bagage [baggage] packed by 5 oclock [o'clock] in the morning.


Tuesday morning. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

still feeble but all ready to go with regiment where ever it may be sent. 7, oc [o'clock] called into battallion [battalion] line, orders read, for the bagage [baggage] wagons to remain here. each man to take his knapsack & blankets, I being one of the wagon guards, was detailed to remain and take charge of the bagage [baggage], I asked the Capt [Captain] to let me go. he told me that he had rather I and Frank Hendon would stay he remarked that I was feeble, he thought it best to stay. but I could go if I was not willing to stay. I then remained satisfied, none of the officers even, knew where they were going. I hated to see them go, and be left, but I thought it my duty to do the Captains will.




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during the day I heard they were expecting a battle at sewell mountain, Wise Legion being stationed near there were expecting an attack,


Thursday morning. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

the clouds hang heavy and loom of dark. nine oclock [o'clock] the rain begins steady and the clouds boil up thick & angry. which seem to foretell a gloomy season ahead, Oh how I sympathize with my comrades who are exposed to such a cold and chilling rain without even a shelter to protect them against its chilling influences, Although I am well sheltered I would feel better to share their sufferings with them, than be here housed in my tent, and know that they are exposed,, " evening. several from the hospital have come in, and three from Sewell. sick, that bring the news that a fight is inevitable. the rains still fall steady with [added text: out] secession [cessation] .


friday morning. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

the wind begins to howl fiercely from the east and the rain now begins to pour down in torrents as though the whole heavens had opened we now have fourteen sick from the hospital and camp. to cook and care for. and the rain pouring without intermission, and the face of the earth afloat in water. cooking is utterly


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impossible here I will go [deleted text: to] and get the Lady of the house at the well, to cook breakfast. she promised to do so provided I pay her in coffee. which is preferable to money. I gave her two pounds of coffee and found the rations to be cooked, which she prepared nicely. "night. The rain continued to fall and the wind to howl fearfully during the day and yet there is no intermission. since we have partaken of another meal prepared as above mention I must lay myself down not to sleep, but to toss to and fro with restless anxiety for those exposed to such drenching rains, and howling winds which make the tents reel and quiver, although strugling [struggling] amidst their last efforts to withstand the heavy currents invading them,


Saturday. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

the clouds have broken away and the howling winds have ceased but in the valley just below the camp where ran a small ripling [rippling] stream. winding its course through the meadow, has swelled to a large concourse of infuriated waters rolling majestically along. sweeping everything in its reach away,


Monday Oct [October] 7th. , [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

We are called upon to chronacle [chronicle] the loss of a Colonel. (his residence Richmond Via [Virginia] )


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The price of whoes life was the wine cup, which drove from his eyes the fear of death & love for life. with dauntless steps he rode forward untill [until] pierced by the shots of two of the enemies pickets which ended his career in the armies on earth to join the armies in heaven or the demonds [demons] in H--l [Hell] . We are now informed that the pickets are firing upon eachother [each other] at every oppertunity [opportunity] .


Tuesday 8th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

news that one officer and private of the 20th Miss [Mississippi] regiment were killed while the pickets we [were] taking their Posts,


Wednesday. morning. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

James Hancock, a member of the same company that I belong, having been sick for several days now became eminently worse, we having no physician here, I informed Capt [Captain] Clark. (who was in charge of the post for this regiment) of the fact. he told me to go to General Floyd.(who was still here, on account of a wound arm) and inform him of the fact. I proceeded to the guard line around his quarters, and was admitted upon the plea of especial business with his excellency Gen, [General] Floyd. when I approached I found him sitting down to a table of smoking boiled beef, biscuit, and coffee. as I approached


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near. I felt a mysterious feeling flash over me I had never spoken to him, and had never seen him but the one time. I thought of that stern look and commanding voice. and now I see his hard visage, and stern gaze turned upon me which aroused emotions more easily imagined than described. It was more like I used to feel when I met my sweetheart, except there was no secret joy elating my heart, I pulled off my hat like a negro as I thought I was, and opened my mouth to speak. I felt a curious quivering of my nerves and a twitching of the under lip a convulsion of the muscles, and a some thing rise up in my throat that felt as large as my fist. but I managed to speak distinctly although the same stern gaze was fixed upon me, he now spoke to my great supprise [surprise] & releaf [relief] in a calm & mild tone. I now felt perfectly at ease, for I was satisfied that I would neither be knocked down or carried to the guard tent. after asking me various questions concerning the case. he turned to one of his aids who was sitting at the table in breathless silence if he would attend to that for him


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with an imploreing [imploring] look that supprised [surprised] me he promised that he would. and I left him to finish his meal, The wagon came around to take the sick man away we fixed him off as comfortable as possible and the wagner [wagoner] drove off for Blue sulphur springs in a couple hours he drove back and left the sick again in my hands. The sick had been ordered from there to the white spring. Capt [Captain] Clark now made arrangements with a wagner [wagoner] of the North Carolina reg [regiment] to take him to Lewisburg and have him up at the post office immediately after breakfast but the wagon had gone the following morning before we got him there having to carry him on a tent cloth. we lay him on the piazer [piazza] floor to see if we could get conveyance for him, the sun soon began to shine in his face and we then moved him in the back room of the house. which contained a few bottles of medicine. an old lounge a side table and two chairs, the petifogger [pettifogger] villian [villain] of a Doctor ordered me to take him out of his room and way. I told him that I would as soon as I could get conveyance to take him away he looked angry but said no more


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I soon found a half dozen wagons going the Blue to Haul the sick to the White sulphur springs. I asked one of the wagners [wagoners] to take my sick man along. If my quartermaster Gray sais [says] so, I'll do it! he is up yonder in that tent pointing to a tent on the Hill sais [says] he, Gray is as clever as any man in the world. I now had some hope of getting him off and went straight to see him. I told him if his condition and – that we had no wagons there except what were in service. and no physician to administer to his wants. he looked at me harshly and remarked gruffly that I had better make him quartermaster of the brigade, I now returned with a determination to do all in my power to comfort and relieve him and if he died. I should feel that I had done my duty. when I returned to the house. the physician told me that he could not stay any longer there. I now became exasperated at his insolence and want of humanity, and I told him. that I wished I was back in Georgia to fight georgias battles. and via [virginia] might go to h--l [hell] and I hoped that he'd go with it


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we carried him back to his tent where I did all that I could for him untill [until] the following day when we got conveyance for him to the hospital where [deleted text: to my supprise [surprise] he recovered] [added text: I hope he may receive good attention] and [deleted text: is] recover,


Sunday 6th. Oct [October] [View Civil War timeline for this date]

we received here of the disappearance of the enemy from the top of Sewell mountain. Our forces scouting to find the new position of the enemy


Tuesday 8th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

a brush reported here of yesterdays occurrence between our cavalry and the retreating enemy. which resulted in many killed and wounded. and thirty head of horses taken by our scouts without the loss of a man.


Wednesday 9th [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

reported here to day [today] that a brush actually took place on the 7th but contradicting the report of any kill wounded. or the taking of horses. but one ball took effect that was seen, a horse was seen to loose his fly brush,


Thursday 10th , [View Civil War timeline for this date]

a special order from Capt [Captain] McCallay to take the company bagage [baggage] and proceed directly to him despite any other orders that might be given,




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Friday 11th, [View Jenkins Chronology]

an unwelcome visitor. more rain


Saturday morning [View Civil War timeline for this date]

we are now packed up and ready to bid adieu to Meadow Bluff, evening 8 o'clock now at Ball hill near sewell. the station of the 18th reg [regiment] . orders to cook two days rations which we did and retired to rest at 2 oclock [o'clock] .


Sunday morning 13th [View Jenkins Chronology]

all ready for the march in pursuit of the enemy. Evening 5, oclock [o'clock] after 11 miles march over the roughest road & worst wilderness looking country I ever saw we are encamp [encamped] for the night, A fight between the Adutant [Adjutant] s negro and a Soldier. The adutant [adjutant] throws his sword between them making vehement jestures [gestures] stopping them, one circumstance of to days [todays] occurrence I'll mention, once we stopped by a cabbage patch near a house, the Lieut [Lieutenant] Colonel and Adutant [Adjutant] turned their horses in the patch to get a morsel. some of the boys took the privalege [priviledge] of going in for the same purpose. the first mentioned officer ordered the second to have those men in the cabage [cabbage] patch put under guard. he did not do this but ordered them out and told them if they went in again he would,




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Monday 14th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

After 7 or 8 miles. march [deleted text: are] over the roughes [roughest] country yet seen of hills mountains. muddy swamps, along the banks of the rockes [rockiest] creek perhaps that exists. we are encamp [encamped] at Green Sulphur Springs which seem to be hemed [hemmed] in on all sides by high cragged mountains except two gaps near the creek it seems formed by nature for a road,,


Friday 18th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

moved on in direction of the Tennesse [Tennessee] Turnpike road along the winding narrow pike on the side of the mountains, over bluffs, or precicies [precipices] a hundred [added text: feet] below. awful and fright to behold, and to the opposite side is the mountain rising majestically as far above; this is a picture of the country for 7 miles to new river where we are now waiting for the flat to carry us across, 2, oclock [o'clock] all across. now waiting for the bagage [baggage] trains which come one at a time, Night the trains continue to come up one at a time which are immediately ferried across,


Saturday 19th. [View Jenkins Chronology]

ordered to take half the bagage [baggage] at a time and proceed up the mountain, which is said to be


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1600. feet grade to the mile along the pike road then ordered to put all on, after which we traveled half mile to the base of the mountain and threw half the bagage [baggage] off and the wagon moved on, I together with several others remained with the bagage [baggage] for the next train. and took a stroll up the river along a narrow road between the bluff and River. ranging from 7 to 100 feet from water to bluff, of solid stone from 70 to 100 hundred feet in perpendicular height, on the left ran the river of solid stone bed. three hundred [deleted text: feet] [deleted text: yards] [added text: yards] wide, reaching as far above as the eye could reach. a little below the rock suddenly disappeared. the water falling in solid column, the whole width of the river,. to the depth of from ten to fifteen feet, abruptly lashing and foaming among the broken fragments of granate [granite] below, making a striking contrast with the waters above as they glided smoothly and list[added text: less] ly along without an [deleted text: an] impediment to impede it [its] progress. a riffle [a-riffle] or abubble [a-bubble], like the sweets of human life when the soul is happy. without one contra current to prevent the free fruition of his joy


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he begins to think that all trouble has vanished forever. but as quick as thought the spell is broken and the billows begin to foam and lash against the fragments of his imaginary temple of earthly happiness. 2 oclock [o'clock] . I returned to camp met the wagon on its return. we were now soon in rout [route] for the top of the mountain. repacked the whole baggage and traveled one & on [one] half miles farther. and struck camp for the night upon the side of a mountain. so steep that we were compelled to blockade the tent door to prevent our sliding out in our slumbers to some unknown landing we knew not where, Although the proud 13th. while at Griffin Georgia. had to send out two committees before a suitable camping place could be found, they were now glad to find a resting place even upon the mountains side of [added text: the] western via [virginia] wilds, after preparing the camp and building a fire, I sauntered off to see what I might pick up (our rations being short) I had'nt [hadn't] gone far untill [until] I found a regular beaten path through the mountains. a little farther and a fresh field of corn now in plight [sight]


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for roasting, with any quantity of cow cumbers [cucumbers] and beans. I now fell into gathering the beans in my handkerchief and filling my pockets with cewcumbers [cucumbers] . but before I had finished my mission of roguery the owner with two sentinels from our ranks were upon. me. the owner call [called] to the sentinels and pointed me out. yet I kept gathering for thought I would have a good bait to go under arrest upon. I now soon had a quantity and met the scoundrel and showed my stolen property. and pretended very brave. and informed him if he reported me I should have him mobbed before morning. he took to his heels and left I now passed out undisturbed to camp.


Sunday morning 20th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

we were soon off from the camp on our rout [route] . we to day [today] are traveling over the lowest swampiest looking country. I ever saw although high above the level of the river, noon we now strike camps, the road being blocked by by a regiment a head [ahead] .


Monday 21st . [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

we traveled down the mountain by a winding narrow road


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1 1/2 miles to the foot of another, which is said to cap the climax of all mountains, which we ascended by doubling teams. Six horses to each wagon, by a road. its formation I'll describe we first took a due westward course for about 200 hundred yards. to the foot of a steep mountain, with a dug out [dugout] in the mountain inorder [in order] to bring the wagon far enough to make the turn by loosing the horses. backing and cutting the wagon by hand. squarely to the south, now 100 yards farther to a steep bluff a due west course about the same distance to another abrupt bend in the mountain. with another dugout and a similar turn with the first a due south course about the same distance to the bluff again, turn westward again 50 yards to the bluf [bluff] . another similar turn north, now winding around the hill westward. to another abrupt turn with the mountain ridge immediately before us still another dugout and similiar [similar] turn to the south 50 yds. [yards] now curving westward to the summit, a distance perhaps 1 1/2 miles from its base and a gained elevation of


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half that distance. we were now ordered by Lieut [Lieutenant] Colo [Colonel] Douglass to stack arms. sling knapsacks, and go back and help other companies bring up their bagage [baggage] . after we had brought up ours without the aid of any of them, by pushing at the wheels ourselves. Although we had sent the horses back twice. He ordered Capt [Captain] McCallay to send his men back. But Capt [Captain] . refused to send his men back. but remarked that he did not object to their going if they wished. My horses may be imposed upon but my men shall not be made pack horses. You then refuse to obey? (sais [says] Douglas) Capt [Captain] I do — If my men wish to go I do not object but I'll give no orders, Douglass, then I'll report you. Capt [Captain] as you please, we now moved forward half mile & struck camp for the night,


Tuesday, Oct. [October] 22, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

moved on five miles into the Tennessee & Virginia Turnpike road a distance of five miles, over a new cut road through a wilderness, of chestnut and blackjack growth, and struck camp again on a hillside. where we


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blockaded the tent door. to half stand & half lay to repose & rest our wearyed [wearied], bodies, and awoke in the morning to find a steady rain fall [rainfall], which lasted untill [until] 9 oclock [o'clock] . being the third succeeding night that we had witnessed the same, 9 oclock [o'clock] the rain ceased and we marched on in direction for Raleigh. Court house, the wind began to blow severely & the [added text: weather] became very chilly, with a very muddy road we now traveled 8 miles. struck camp with only 15 pounds flour to 60 men for the next days ration. here we pressed a lot of Pumpkin which I volunteered to stew. in order to mix with the flour. which we did. making a considerable addition to the quantity of biscuit our morcel [morsel] of flour alone, would have made my task being complete I retired to rest at 1 oclock [o'clock] in the morning.


Thursday Oct [October] 24th. , [View Civil War timeline for this date]

The regiment called into line by Lieut [Lieutenant] Colo [Colonel] . Douglass then formed into a hollow square, The Lieut [Lieutenant] Colonel,, in the centre [center] . mentioned his efforts to do his duty. since being in command. The much esteemed (Ector. being sick. and unable to command)


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then mentioned his intention to resig[deleted text: t] n after the present fall campaign, this was good news and glad tidings to a majority of the regiment since he. (Douglass) had become very unpopular,, he then wound up with orders for the regiment to march this day in battallion [battalion] line, of four ranks. no man allowed to leave his place in line. each Capt [Captain] ordered to see this order executed, notwithstanding that the road is horribly muddy. and difficult to get along. with the privalege [priviledge] of picking the road, this order was not adhered to for we had gone not more than 100 yards when we came to a mud hole perhapse [perhaps] two feet deep and our ranks were split from one end to the other of the line. after going two miles we crossed piny [piney] creek. a large rocky beded [bedded] swift running current westwardly [westward] our way following its bank. through mud (or properly slop) from shoe mouth to one foot deep, for one mile, to where we were supprised [surprised] to see another stream coming eastwardly of about equil [equal] size coming immediately in contact [added text: one] with the other, now as the waters


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of each stream [deleted text: came] . like two armies madly rushing together, the billows foaming and lashing together as though each were vieing [vying] for conquest, but with their equalities of current and power, they seem now (as we cast our eye farther down) to compromise their fury by mixing their properties, and marching together directly to the northward. each claiming an equal share of glory. one without envieing [envying] . the other, mingle into one. we now left the Sublime scene & arrived at Raleigh C-H. [Courthouse] at noon. now without any provisions at all. except fresh beef. of which we receive 1 1/2 pounds daily from the butchers hand, bread or no bread salt or no salt,


Friday Oct [October] 25. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

evening nothing yet to eat except a little parched corn that we have stolen, and a dish of boiled beef.


Saturday Oct [October] 26th , [View Civil War timeline for this date]

we now get a days ration of corn meal and wheat ground without botting [batting] . and so coarce [coarse] that it cannot be sifted yet it tast's [tastes] delicious.


Sunday Oct [October] 27th, morning 8 oclock [o'clock], [View Civil War timeline for this date]

Ordered to strike tents and prepare to march as soon


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as possible. nine oclock [o'clock] . and all ready for the march. with nothing prepared to eat for the day, we now start in quick time, Evening we arrived at our resting place for the night just as the sun cast its last rays of autumn hue upon the forest trees on the eastern hills to find only five except myself who had kept pace with the leaders of the regiment and our galliant [gallant] Capt. [Captain] they continue to come in one and two at a time, It is now 9 oclock [o'clock] . I'll retire to rest my wearied limbs. after a march of twenty three miles in the space of nine hours, including delays, with the burden of my knapsack gun & accoutrements making at least 35 pounds,


Monday morning Oct [October] 28th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

The provision train having been put in the rear yesterday, did not arrive until midnight, I was now disturbed by several of the men. who were all– hungry not having anything to eat since early morning, I persuaded them to take a nap, and put them off by telling them that I would draw their provisions at


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three oclock [o'clock] .. 2 oclock [o'clock] I was again disturbed & to satisfy them I found the commissary, drew, & distributed, their rations, After cooking for the day. we proceed to Fayette C-H a distance of 2 miles arrived at 9 oclock [o'clock] . where we received an order from Gen. [General] Floyd to advance to the foot of Cotton hill, and there await farther orders. We now marched 7 miles farther, and struck camp at 3 O.C [o'clock] in the evening. I now piled myself in the sun upon the grass, to rest and take a nap, I had scarcely been at ease half an hour, when orders came to retreat back 3 miles to the place first designated, we now have to strike tents and repack our bagage [baggage] . and march 3 miles back making 6 miles unnecessary travel. through the carelessness of officers, which has nettled the feelings of the regiment which is [added text: made] very obvious even to the careless, by the loud yells and bitter sayings of the men. against Lt [Lieutenant] Colo, [Colonel] Douglass. We again struck camp after dark. prepared supper, and all soon fell asleep,


Tuesday Oct [October] 29th ,, [View Civil War timeline for this date]

We to day [today] are not disturbed


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for duty. Nearly all are calmly sleeping away the day,


Wednesday the 30th,, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

Again ordered to advance. Evening now striking camps three miles on the advance. near by [nearby] our first stopping place, being (I learn) only five miles from Kanawha river, a few miles below the Hawks nest, this being the mouth of the Gauley river & head of the Kanawha,


Thursday the 31st. Evening 10 oclock [o'clock] . [View Civil War timeline for this date]

Now aroused by an order to cook 2 days rations. have the bagage [baggage] packed by 5 oclock [o'clock] tomorrow morning, I have often wondered on such occasions why this could not be thought of before we are in bed asleep. but such is life in camps, we now fell in and finished just in time to have our tents and plunder on the wagon, at the appointed hour. 5 oclock [o'clock] all in batallion [battalion] line with knapsacks two days provisions. guns. & accoutrements. for some unknown quarter. all is intense anxiety to know our destination. to know the part we are to [deleted text: day] play to day [today] . but this is wisely kept a secret. 10 o'clock ,


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Just as day was making his appearance in the east. we heard the shrill clear voice of our Adutant [Adjutant], in the command, forward march! The regiment now marched across Laurel creek, filed left into the turnpike road in the direction of the river and still we were led forward perfectly ignorent [ignorant] of the mission for which we were sent; like the innocent lamb gaily skipping and playing on his way to the slaughter pen, as though going to some clear ripling [rippling] stream, or green pasture for his refreshment, now up! up! we go, along the side of the long mountain ridge, up! up! still we go, around deep precipicies [precipices] yawning for one mistep [misstep] to engulph [engulf] [added text: us], and still above us rises the mountains high. yet gradually shortening the distance above, and [deleted text: lengthing] lengthening the distance to the creek below. untill [until] finally we gained its lofty summit. breaking of each way, to the creek on the left & great Kanawha river on the right far below. a little farther and we see large clusters of hessian tents like, like flocks of sheep up and down the river for 6 or 7 miles


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Now we cross over the ridge, and down! down! we go. with the mountain separating us from our camp, and the River– from the enemy, Until now another mountain peak rises high upon our right. again separating us from the River & the yankee camp beyond, Still down! we go, the mountains closing in untill [until] now wedged in a narrow winding valley, with just space for the little riffling branch plunging and lashing over cliff & bluff. with the road along side; just here we are halted, as we can see the ridge falling back for the waters of the Kanawha. we were ordered to turn to the left and asscending [ascending] the mountain. by clambering up with help of shrubs and in their absence by bracing our muskets against the ground. or by clawling [crawling] from one grub, shrub, cragg [crag] and cliff to another, untill [until] finally after much fatigue we gained the top. where perhapse [perhaps] . this was caused the first footprints that were ever imprinted upon this peak. Now we crossed the main top and were ordered to scatter along some ten or fifteen paces apart, along side


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the mountain where we could command plain view of the river below. with noiseless watchfulness we groped our way to our stands, and had scarcely seated ourselves, when our cannon upon the next peak to our right broke the stillness of our watch, like a peal of angry thunder, sounding, and reverberating throu [through] the mountains long after the peering yankee hoards had found their hiding places. except a few who first ran to & fro peering here and there. like wild beasts of the forest hunted down by the woodsman, now they huddle together near the river bank. and seem very busy. then running around & peering about again all was still. for a moment. then a harsh shrill voice broke the silence. by the one single word "fire", then [added text: a] stream of smoke began to curl up a moment more, and the smoke again flashed up, the cannon roared, and the ball whistled. untill [until] with a crash & roar it busted, but ere the sounds had died out in the mountains, our battery again tore loose filling the air with thundering sounds, reverberating from peak to peak! now it burst, with


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a crashing rumbling sound, a moment more and yells shrieks and loud cries [deleted text: of] are heard in the direction, each tuned to a different key making a strong contrast with the rumbling sounds rolling through the distant hills, Though we are not sure that those cries are of distress, or bidding defiance to our efforts. 12 oclock [o'clock] ., before one sound dies away. another breaks forth keeping up a continual roar, & the clouds above us thickning [thickening] too and now and the rain drops pattering around us. as we sit upon the ground with shivering limbs. and be [deleted text: num] numbed fingers with my aching feet braced against this old cotton oak. to keep[deleted text: ing] from sliding off to the river at our mountains base now the rain begins to fall thicker and the cannons thunder roars dull and heavy. with my constant & careful watch. I feel dull & sleepy,, three o clock [o'clock] though the balls continued to fly back & forth and the thunder howled, amid all I have forgotten a few [added text: painful] moments in sleep, Now we are doomed to stay here through the night, I will crawl to yonder log spread my blanket, and wrap myself from the chilling


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rain. Night 11 oclock [o'clock] . I had scarcely rolled myself & gun in my blanket when, the news came. to double quick down. the mountain, That fifteen hundred yankees had crossed and cut us off from our camps. We now made short work of a long trip, by tumbling falling rolling with first head & then heels up, with odds the difference we soon reached the road below. then forming a line we made our way back one mile where the yankees were said to have been. but there were none now to be seen, Then ordered to double quick across a corn field in to [into] the wood, and up a mountain as rough as the first described, the rain still falling without cessation, and we now drenshed [drenched] in water, after gaining the top, formed, a line of battle on the crooked ridge, we then ordered to quicktime [quick time] down the opposite side from that we came up. in line of battle to the valley, where it was believed the enemy were. I now more fully expected a fight than ever before. I did not feel the least excitement even about, nerves. I now craved to meet the vandals. that I might rieke [wreak] my


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vengiance [vengeance] upon them. without even a thought of the consequences. or circumstances that might perhapse [perhaps] befall myself in the contest. I now feel willing to acknowledge my supprise [surprise] at such feelings which I had never before felt on such occasions, but can attribute them to no particular cause, except it be the recklessness of fatigue & exposure. As I blundered along looking in every – forward – direction. I often fell to the ground, and by looking along our line I could see a dozen or more continually falling & regaining their feet, but we made no stop untill [until] we [added text: reached] the narrow valley when disappointment could be read in the look and countinance [countenance] of all, for the yankees, if ever here, had disappeared,, we now made our way to the turnpike and reached it at dark, without a single star to light our pathway. we now groped our way back to camp. with no cecession [cessation] of the rain which now poured in torrents, with a road afloat with water, and as slick as glass. I was often made to think of the boy who came in school too late, on being asked the cause, he replied that he stept [stepped] one pace forward and [added text: slipped] two backward


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Teacher. How did you get here at all? Boy. I never should, had I not turned backward


Saturday morning November 2nd,, 11 oclock [o'clock] [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

an order for 15 men from each company making 150 from the regiment. Capt [Captain] McCallay was placed at their head, for picket duty. I did not go, being released from picket guard to do other duty.


Sunday Nov. [November] 3rd.12,oclock [o'clock] . [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

an other [another] order for 15 more men for duty, the first 15 yet upon duty, this last 15 taking all present, who are able for duty, It was now raining down and had been for some time, we not expecting this order had not eat dinner. The meat was boiling and the biscuit baking. but they prove nothing to us for we are hurried away without a morcel [morsel], we know not where, or for what purpose, but with our blankets and guns we left the camp and were carried to the spot where we had left the road on friday before. to guard the river. now we filed to the right instead of the left, and clome [climbed] the mountain peak upon which stood the thundering gun of friday


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and there to protect this gun from the hands of the yanks. Now here we are upon this high mountain without one morcel [morsel] to quench our already approaching hunger. not a tent to shield our bodies from the cold drenching rain which continues to fall. now we went to work. to prepare some kind of a shelter to cover us. (when not on picket duty.) by digging, down the upper side, and raising the lower untill [until] the ground is level. showing a fall of six to every ten feet,, Then raising a pole & spreading our blankets over for a covering,.


Monday Nov [November] 4th. evening six oclock [o'clock] . [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

50, of our number being put on picket last night, 50 others to day [today] . now 50 more for the night including myself,, now we hear the officer call. with your cartridge box's [boxes] and guns for guard, we were soon led to our posts with orders,


This picket guard you're obliged to stand
Its not worth while to frown
And if you see a yankee band
Be sure to shoot them down
Upon the mountain slope I stand
With my musket in my hand


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Awaiting for the yankee boys
To come to our stand
As for sleep I Pass it by
Waiting for a yankee spy
The woods are thick the trees [added text: are] tall
Yet by my post must stand or fall.
I turn my eyes from place to place
Looking for a yankee face
yet twelve hours, here must stand
And watch as faithful as I can

Night– nine oclock [o'clock], now comes our bread & beef, we'll take for hungers releafs [relief] . nor a bite we'[added text: ve] taken in hours, thirty eight, We'll take a biscuit, boys. then its mate,


Tuesday Nov [November] 5th. [View Jenkins Chronology]

the canonading [cannonading] is kept up stead'ly [steadily] through the day time. but no damage has yet been done by their guns and we have no good reason to believe that we have accomplished anything. twelve oclock [o'clock] . we have received another meal, and its bearer informs us that our regiment is again ordered. to move back three miles to our old camp.


Wednesday the 6th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

we have received


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another meal, our provision being cooked at camp and brought to us. we received one meal daily, Another unwelcome visitor rain. rain. Evening half Past four. we have received an order to pack our blankets and return to camps, another detachment having come to releave [relieve] us. 7 oclock [o'clock] . once more at our camp. after a muddy and fatiguing tramp of nine miles.


Thursday Nov [November] 7th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I have been busily engaged the whole day in assisting the Capt [Captain] in making out the payroll. having been in service now four months this is the first appearance of any forth coming money to remunerate us for the hardships we have endured, and the fatigue we have borne, yet I must say without any apparent benefit to the service.


Friday Nov. [November] 8th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

again busily engaged at the same business. during this day. Although I feel sensibly the effects of cold with slight fever.


Saturday Nov [November] 9th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

with a steady rain through the last night which seems to be increasing, I find myself considerably worse this morning. considerable fever


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and constant aching and chilly sensation. night with[added text: out] a morcel [morsel] of refreshment. [deleted text: I must] through the day. I must suffer away a long night of agony,


Sunday morning Nov [November] 10th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

still no appetite to eat. but less fever & aching sensations. The assistant Surgeon has called around & advised me to go to [deleted text: the] Fayette C-H. [Courthouse], three miles distant, where he sais [says] I may soon be able to return in good health. with the advantage of a comfortable and better attention than can be given here Night 7 oclock [o'clock] . Fayette C-H [Courthouse], I arrived here about nine this morning was conducted into this a very comfortable small room by the physician in charge of our sick here. he asked me if this would not be a comfortable room. which I answered in the affirmative. he then told me to make a fire of rails or anything that I could find. after doing this, which fatigued me down, I spread my blankets upon the floor and here spent a miserable day with[added text: out] a soul in the room, Not a cooking vessal [ vessel], or even a tin cup, without a drop of water


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the whole day except a draught that I got by walking to the spring after it. my feelings may be more easily imagined than described, night now closed in without a soul in my room, and I prepared my mind to spend the night alone. when to my supprise [surprise] and joy M. A. Kelly & Alfred Ivey, two members of our Com. [Company] came in one sick, the other to attend him. a little supper was soon fixed up and I eat a portion of a fritter, but soon found that I had no taste for nourishment.


Monday Nov [November] 11th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

the physician now came in and fixed up some quinine, and soon left. which I took according to his direction. but with no apparent effect Evening no change. with no appetite to eat I have only taken a small portion of batter cake. for the day,


Tuesday evening Nov [November] 12. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I awoke this morning with a swolen [swollen] jaw. and a peculiar tingling pain near my ear. an evident symptom of mumps. the physician came in nine oclock [o'clock] & pronounced it such..


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[deleted text: the] Our nurse has just returned from camp with the word that the regiment has been ordered into line to meet an expected attack the enemy having crossed the river, I scarcely know how I felt I cannot say that I was anxious to get into a fight, yet I was very sorry that I could not be there. for I wished to share the fate of my comrades let that be what it might. I was restless and the more I thought about it the more restless I became untill [until] finally I concluded to go if I could possibly get there I asked the nurse to go out and get me a few apples. & took advantage of his abscence [absence] to get away. I started by the spring to get water but before I had made half that distance. I found that my efforts were vain, and returned more miserable than before, The moments now draged [dragged] like days, & the day seemed never to end, Nine oclock [o'clock] . night. The scene in the streets becomes exciteing [exciting] & interesting the sound of horses feet and the clanking of sabres [sabers] . swords. and guns


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are now heard in every direction the news has come that three thousand of the enemy have crossed the river above and are now coming up luke creek, are now within a few miles of the turnpike three miles from our camp, and in the rear. leaving Fayette. this place also half mile in the rear. The sick are now ordered to retreat. after two hours excitement with a continual uproar. we moved off with all the medical stores, and nine men upon a two horse wagon. [deleted text: through] we made very slow speed along a very muddy and winding mountain road, and several times during the night, it was necessary that some of the sick should walk. it became impossible for the faithful horses, which tugged with all their might as though they were conscious of our emergency. some not able others not willing there was but two of the number myself an [and] Dan Owens who were willing to take the mud. the air was chilling to my thin blood and I became almost intolerably cold. morning found us


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at McCoys mill (only 12 miles from Fayette) where a greater portion of the brigade overhauled us, and we were detained untill [until] ten oclock [o'clock] Floyd here rode by on a long eared mule, & asked, if we were sick, without even an apparent emotion of sympathy. after leaving this place we trudged along untill [until] night when we came to a very mudy [muddy] bogy [boggy] branch. where the avalanch [avalanche] had bogged down with one wounded and one sick, our horses had almost failed not having anything to eat on the rout [route] all the medical stores were thrown off our guns and knapsacks also in order to take on the two above mentioned. the sick also got out, and the horses with all their might carried the empty wagon through. the horses were now so near exausted [exhausted] that the sick could not all go, none seemed willing to be left. I with the conciousness that some were really weaker than myself. I alone agreed to be left, Dr. Beasley now told me if I did not feel able to walk to Beckley (Raleigh C-H [Courthouse] ) three miles distant. to spread my blanket


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and remain untill [until] morning when he would send the wagon after me, which I should have done had it not been for the first Christian hearted Virginian I had dealt with. who told me that I could stay with him if I was to sleep upon the floor. which I readily accepted, though with my mind in a perfect straight for I had not a single penny to recompense his kindness. (We had drawn checks a few day before but mine not having been dated I sent it to the Q–M. [Quarter Master] for date I was sent to Fayette before its return) I was soon invited to the table of cold corn bread, warm rye coffee & a small quantity of cold meat, of which I partook very sparingly. for I had not tasted nourishment in twenty eight or thirty hours. my appetite now had become very sharp. I spread my blankets soon after, before the fire & slept soundly through the night. and awoke very much refreshed in the morning. a breakfast was soon ready of baked turkey eggs bread and coffee, of which


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[deleted text: of wh] I partook very sparingly, and felt more distressed than before for the time had now come for a reconing [reckoning] . I was soon released by one John McLendon of our reg [regiment] - company (A) who could not make the change for his bill alone and profered [proffered] to pay both mine & his, which released me for the present. I told him of my poverty, but told him that he should loose [lose] nothing, rain had been falling through the night. at intervals. and now the clouds were thickening and the rain set in steady and heavier. I now wrapped up in my blankets and took a path through the mountains for Beckley 2 l/2 miles distant, the rain increased during our troup [troop] and became slightly wet, I found the sick room of the sick belonging to the (Co [Company] ) I do, and put up with them, the rain increased without intermission through the day. I ate a small quantity of flour bread about three oclock [o'clock] . in the afternoon, I felt fatigued and weak but without fever or pain. about nine oclock [o'clock] at night several of the company came


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in, (who were not fit for duty) who informed me of the fight [deleted text: on the] at cotton hill on Laurel creek. on Tuesday evening 12th.) the evening of my retreat from fayette at night. Capt. [Captain] McCallay caused the first yanks to bite the dust of about 70. according to the yankees account that night upon the battle ground after hunting their wounded & dead. "one of them in the hearing of our pickets exclaimed that the damned rebels. had killed 70. our loss was one Virginian killed. one Green of (Co [Company] A) 13th reg– [regiment] wounded in the neck. 12 oclock [o'clock], night . Dr. Green the physician attending the sick now came in ordering all who were able to walk and carry their clothing to get up and leave immediately that the enemy would be upon them before morning and all who were able to walk would be left. those who came in the early night and the nurses left. the physician who showed evident symptoms of Drunkness [Drunkeness] lay down & soon fell asleep. I also fell asleep and was aroused after a time by


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a like confusion to that at Fayette a few nights ago, horses feet were rattling up and down the road swords & sabres [sabers] were jingling, voices were ringing through the air in all directions "The yankees will be here before day the sick must be carried off.. Where are the wagons? where are the drivers? where are the physicians? the whole [deleted text: town] town in an uproar and the people panic stricken. I must acknowledge that I was astonished at want of firmness in those who were well, the sick were calm in our room. I again fell asleep, but was again aroused by the dizzy headed man of physic who ordered the sick to pack up their blankets in readiness. a gentleman now came into the room and Dr Green asked him to try to get a wagon for the sick, and again fell asleep. the gentleman came in again after a half hours time, aroused the Doctor and informed him that he could not get a wagon. the Dr. [Doctor] again lay down but the scene out door [outdoors] continued untill [until] day, when "Clark," the Surgeon of our


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regiment came up and soon pressed three wagons & we left at about sunrise, this being Friday Nov [November] 15th. the wind comminced [commenced] sharply from the northwest and the clouds began to pass away, the wind continued bleak and cold, I must stop to sympathize with those who [deleted text: have] [added text: are] fortunately well, but unfortunately are compelled to wade the mud (or more properly slop) which is almost intolerabl[deleted text: y] e not a pinpoints space can be found less than shoemouth [shoe mouth] deep and the greater portion of our way so far is axletree deep in slop about the thickness of hot mush, here are two soldiers walking one after the other. and before the one can put his foot in the track of the other, the mud closes and no sign of the track is seen. evening three o clock [o'clock] . we now have left the (Via & Ten [Virginia & Tennessee] ) turnpike road and taken the road. (at shady spring 12 miles on our rout [route], from Beckley.) for Princeton Murcer [Mercer] County. our road is now much better. 5 oclock [o'clock], I became so cold that it seemed intolerable, I got out to walk




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soon after I came in front of a house with a fine burning fire shining through the door way [doorway], which was to [too] great a temptation for me now to withstand. I turned my course through the gateway. to thaw my almost frozen limbs although I had been closely enveloped in my blankets, but when I intered [entered] the room my mind was attracted from the fire, although a few moments before it was paramount, in the centre [center] of the floor. sit the table with a smoking dinner of bread, pumpkin meat, coffee butter & milk. now I could feel the keen gnawing of an (as I thought) intolerable hunger. without a penny to [deleted text: buy] [added text: pay] I could not ask to buy, I could not bear to beg, but remained wistfully silent. in one corner near the fire sat a number of our regiment who recognized me, and asked me if I was hungry, I told him that I had not eat anything since the day before and had nothing to eat, the gentleman of the house looked at me but said not a word, in the other corner sat a four


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or five gallon (dinner) pot nearly full of nice stewed pumpkin. my first impulse was to take a plate and dip as much as I wanted and leave the house, but I could not bear the idea, and turned on my heels and left the house in disgust. by this time I was some distance behind the wagon, but after walking about a mile, as fast as I well could, for my weakness I came up with it stoped [stopped], I now got in wearried [wearied] down., after a little delay we went a mile or so farther and camped for the night the wind continued and the clouds began to bank up and soon after dark the snow began to fall, I could not get into the house, and with the help of several sick we soon had a fine fire [added text: of rails] from the fence, with nothing at all to eat except a few ears of corn, which I had found amid some shucks in the wagon. this we parched. and divided among the nine. (there being nine in the wagon) there was four barrels of crackers on another wagon for the sick. one of the nine had


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money he proposed to buy some if we would refund a proportionable [proportional] part back when we could which we agreed to do, but they would not sell them. I told them that we had nothing to eat nor had'nt [hadn't] eat during the day. but to no effect, I then asked for a few for the sick men who were constantly begging for bread I was again refused. when I returned I heard one of our sick a member of (Co [Company], I) tell the wagner [wagoner] . that he could have a havre sack [haversack] of flour (that he had smuggled in the wagon that morning against the surgeons orders,) if he would share his meat with him, I now thought it my chance and went ahead of the wagner [wagoner] and stoled [stole] the flour. after getting warm I found a fever rising & soon lay down, with one blanket under and another over me, I soon became very warm. with fever and the assistance of the fire at my feet,,


Saturday morning Nov [November], 16th . [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I arose about the dawn of Day and found my blanket all covered in snow which continued to fall through


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the night. I feel clear of fever, and very chilly, the snow has ceased is turning cooler. I had brought a bucket of water from a spring quarter mile distant and we soon had a nice batch of doe [dough] made of the stolen flour without salt or greece [grease] with no cooking vessels except a frying [added text: pan] and tea kettle which I had asked a gentleman to put in the wagon for me at Beckley, the bread was soon as dun [done] as we could bake it in the pan. it was so close & compact. without salt or greace [grease] that It would not cook through without burning upon the outside. we eat heartily while it was warm, and pocketed the remainder for another time, We were soon on our way nothing of importance occurs through the day, the road is the worst winding & the most crooked road that we have yet traveled. We sometimes wind around & through the mountains for two or three miles and then come back near enough the same point to ask a friend for a chew of tobacco, this may seem


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strange to those who never traveled through a mountainous country. but simple enough after explanation, the mountain ridge often makes very short curves. (or bends) and our road comes abruptly to the base of a high mountain ridge, the road must make the same curve, winding along the crooked ridge, gradually asscending [ascending] as we proceed untill [until] after a mile, or two, or three, we come back upon the same ridge at whose base we first started, in sight of the road below, evening, after 17 miles travel we are now in camp for the night. the air being much cooler to day [today] than yesterday, we are compelled to camp in and [an] open field, but we have a fine fire of rails. having no axe, & no one of us able to use an axe, we are forced to use rails or any thing [anything] that we can get, having been clear of fever during the day I suffered vastly with cold. now after becoming warm, by the heat of the fire I again felt evident signs of approaching fever.


Sunday Nov [November] 17th, [View Jenkins Chronology]

Clear of fever but feel very


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weak and nervous. after trying our bread at supper last night we found it too tough for our mouths, and having nothing else to eat, we determined to have some crackers & went one at a time untill [until] we took enough for supper. this morning again we have knocked the head out of the last barrel & taken a scanty supply for the day. night after 12 miles for the day we are at the long sought place. the town is so much crowded that we are obliged to take lodging in a steam tan house with one close ten feet square room with a stove, another stove in a dirt floor room below. very open with three tan vats in the room, here we are without a morcel [morsel] to eat of anything.


Monday Nov. [November] 18th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

With no supper last night, and nothing this morning and no preparation making for provisions and the people not generous enough to give us even a meal. One of our men now having drawn money money [money] on his check. bought a lunch of


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dry beef which we have been eating with out [without] bread (through the day). which can not [cannot] be bought,, night. considerable fever again to night [tonight] .


Tuesday morning Nov. [November] 19th. [View Jenkins Chronology]

My fever still remains unceasing since yesterday. Nine O clock [o'clock] Dr. Beasley came round [around] to see us, and gave me a quanity [quantity] of quinine. for the day saying that my fever was too high for other medicine. evening I feel better my fever having greatly abated. to day [today] we have drawn fresh beef and one days ration for three days. being one third ration each day.


Wednesday 20th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I feel much improved. without fever. rain again to day [today] . nothing of importance to day [today] . [deleted text: nothing] Night I will relate a circumstance. of the rascality of soldiers that I have to night [tonight] heard of.. on saturday night last we camped in an open field (near a Widow womans house) by the creek. where a large kettle of 60, or 70 gallons size was hung upon a pole I suppose for washing purposes. after night [deleted text: one of] two Soldiers one from the 50th.


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the 51st. reg Via vol. [regiment Virginia volunteers] after the kettle saying they had bought a hog from the Lady and wished the kettle to scald it. they had also borrowed cooking vessals [vessels] to serve it, the next morning the Lady had missed two hogs from her slaughter pen all her geese and many chickens She complained to Dr. Barber under whose control the sick were, He with supprise [surprise] & fained [feigned] abhorrence for georgians replied, Think you after I have put myself to the trouble of killing a beef for the 13th. regiment Ga. vol [Georgia volunteers] they hav'nt [haven't] stolen your hogs, geese, chickens, and carried off your cooking utencils [utensils] . this the Virginians told a gentleman in my presence while parching the gentlemans corn they had stolen from the loft of the room where we were. This was more than I could bear in silence. I only remarked that the stolen property went as the corn is going. if you had not been caught, you would have told that the dam'ned Georgians (as you call them) did it, in Justice


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to Dr. Barber he did kill the beef. but not a Georgian tasted the meat although [deleted text: they] that portion that was not ate up before was put under our care on sunday night, in the tan house, and weighed to the 50th. & 51st. reg [regiment] 's on monday morning.


Thursday morning [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

Snow fell through the night. and continues to fall, fine and thick. evening. we have drawn flour beef and Salt. full rations for the three days. the snow has ceased. but the clouds continue to loom up thick and dark.


Friday Nov [November] 22nd. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

after a night of sleepless agony with my jaw & teeth, keen darting pains (as quick as electricity) through the jaw bone, and each tooth, that make every muscle & nerve within jerk & quail. then a tremer [tremor], and another flash continuing through the night without intermission. I arose nervous pale, & very weak, and yet I feel symtoms [symptoms] of the same this morning. a slight rain fell during the night. but freezing as fast as it fell upon the snow, making the surface a solid sheet of ice as


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slick as glass,,


Saturday Nov [November] 23rd.. [View Jenkins Chronology]

after another sleepless night, pacing the room and sitting over the stove without a moments sleep, or a moments ease except with my mouth full of cold water. I again take my pen to chronicle my distress.


Sunday Nov [November] 24th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I must again chronicle the distressing story of yesterday morning. Evening the Physician this morning gave me large portions quinine for the day, every three hours to be taken. I now can [deleted text: feel] hear the machinery of a variety work shop working & jingling in [added text: my] ears, but I feel more at ease than I have felt in three days.


Monday, Nov [November] 25 [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

after a sound nights sleep I feel much refreshed, but find my jaw considerably swolen [swollen], Evening in comes a scene interesting to Georgians though of no importance to virginians.. Up steps a large Bull with all the seeming pride & Sangfroid of a young City lawyer, with two dressed hogs upon his back. His driver walking


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lazily behind we asked him if his wagon (Bull) was not very well laden, Oh! no, sais [says] he. I can [added text: pack] 500 pounds over these mountains on him. the meat was readily sold at l0. cts [cents] per pound, and he mustered his team out of town.


Tuesday Nov [November] 26th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I now felt an increasing fever in my jaw which continued badly swollen, and commenced a heavy thobbing [throbbing] .


Wednesday Nov [November] 27th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

I am now called upon to chronicle the sad inteligence [intelligence], of the death of C.W. Emlin, a member of co [company] (B) Who has fought his last battle upon earth, now trying the realities of an unknown world, a reality that all must sooner or later try, for every day [everyday] observation teaches us that death is as certain as life. this is the first scene of death I have witness [witnessed] in the company, out of 12 or 13, It is hard to die at home. with the comfort[deleted text: able] ing words, and soothing hands of Parents, and dear kindred. but harder still in a fareign [foreign] land to bid adieu with all earth. without


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a parting word or glance.


Thursday the 28th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

My Jaw is certainly rising. but with this exception I feel very much improved in health & strength. Evening having heard that our reg– [regiment] is at Peterstown about 25 miles distant, and by going on tomorrow I will have an oppertunity [opportunity] of wriding [riding] 20 miles of the distance. upon the wagon bearing our deceased friend. (to the railroad), I have determined to go. for I am perfectly disgusted with this place.


Friday 29th. 12 oclock [o'clock] . [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

we left Princeton this morning with the first appearancies [appearances] of day light, over a rough muddy road we have made 11 miles, The clouds are thickning [thickening] up with evident sighns [signs] of rain. since we have been resting and taking refreshment. a negro came along one of the boys (there being [deleted text: five] [added text: four] of us) asked the negro if he knew where we could get some whisky. he replied that there was but one half gallon in the country & that belonged to him self [himself]


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We mutually paid him two & a half dollars, for it and then proceeded, three oclock [o'clock] the rain set in. and I set into the whiskey (having taken a horn before) the rain continued untill [until] we were soon drenched in water. the road now being so rough that we were obliged to walk, the water now began to trickle down my body and almost chilled me through with a heavy head ache [headache] and thobbing [throbbing] Jaw, I determined to keep well stimulated if I became intoxicated. in which case I knew the boys would care for me,, at, 5, oclock [o'clock] we came to the river (New) at Shoemakes [Shoemakers] ferry where my road crossed the river for Peterstown., I found that I was pretty well drunk. and tried to beg off from a parting drink, but finally took it and we parted one crossed with me (the other two had furloughs to accompany the remains of C.W. E [Emlin] home) night was now closing in, and being refused a lodging with the ferryman we trudged along through the rain & mud, and I


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very weak. drunk., and fatigued. now went blundering and falling about untill [until] we had gone 2 1/2 miles farther, with no house in sight, we came to a pen covered over with straw making a fine shelter, we agreed to put up in there (with spralls [sprawls] ) for the night


Saturday morning 30th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

when I awoke with a severe head ache [headache] and tremer [tremor] of nerves. I heard the wind fiercely howling & the sleet Rattling thick upon our shelter and the earth around. with not dry thread upon for I had not dried any through the night. I dreaded the day before me, but the sleet soon ceased and the clouds cleared away, after the sun began to shine out, we started on our march. about a quarter distant under the hill we came to a widows house We asked her if we could come in to dry and warm, She replied that we could warm at the next house. nevertheless we we went in and while warming a conversation arose that almost made my heart sink within me, she told us of soldiers come here yesterday almost


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perished to death offering her half Dollar for a peice [piece] of bread as large as her four fingers & boasting of her profit gained by selling soldiers bread at these enormous prices, who were almost perished and worn down trying to protect her own country and fire side. I now left in disgust we soon came to a large creek very full. and running very swift. with no apparent way of crossing exept [except] in a small canoe which we found hemed [hemmed] in between two tree tops reaching out into the main current with nothing to paddle our little bark except a slab from a fence rail we got in and steared [steered] out square into the main current, the only way that we could avoid the tree tops above & below us, as soon as our little craft reached the rough foaming current, inspite [in spite] of our exertions to it, the little boat dashed by the force of the mad rapid current into the tree top below, knocking off my hat which rode the waves like a duck. as long as I had time to watch its course


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at the same time I struck another limb abreast which caused the boat to duck & dip. but with all my strength I kept it above the limb untill [until] my mate. could get out upon the body of the tree. about two feet under the water, & chain the boat to a limb. when I followed him again to shore, Soon after we saw a man on horse back who carried us a cross [across] . one at a time. soon after leaving leaving this place we came to a small hut on the road side. we called and asked permission to warm & dry our wet feet. she treated us very kindly [deleted text: and] evinced much sympathy for Soldiers. & seemed Loyal to our cause. also informed us that she had three sons in our armies. She soon prepared us a good meal of flour bread & boiled ham. she told us that she had no coffee. I had brought some in a sock. (the only thing I had) my hankerchief [handkerchief] being full of salt.) we parched and made coffee, After eating I asked her charge. she said nothing;


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that she was willing to do all in her power for the soldier, yet I could not leave with out [without] giving her something to compensate such kindness. having nothing else to give I emptied the contense [contents] of my sock, & had I ten times the quantity I would have freely given it, we now proceeded. & after going about one mile I came to a one horse wagon covered over with corn tops. I suspect what I soon found to be the fact. a barrel of whiskey underneath the pretended cover. as we neared the wagon. a by stander (& soldier too) addressed my collegue [colleague] who had a cup, "lond [lend] me your cup, I want a half pint of [deleted text: Wh] Whiskey & we hav'nt [haven't] anything to get it in. Ill give it back as soon as I get the whiskey." he paid his quarter, the whiskey was soon drawn. with a precaution to him not to get drunk. not to drink all at once. Oh! sais [says] the soldier I can drink it all. "yes but it will make you [unclear text: drunk] & you must not get drunk. sais [says] the other, after tasting it, he replied O God, I believe it will


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make me drunk.. he then drank a draugh [draught] & offered the cup around, all refused & he seemed puzzled to know what to do with the remainder, after hanging his head & looking thoughtful for a moment. he raised his eyes with a brightened countenance & replied I know what I can do with it O God. I can pack it in my cup – I'm going your road & I'll hand you your cup when I drink the whiskey, (turning to my collegue [colleague] ) we found the camp just before night as I walked up one of the boys, said great God, yonders [yonder's] Cy Jenkins & with a roar of laughter that made the woods ring, they greeted me with apparent pleasure. every one [everyone] had something to say about my hat; or my want of a hat!! untill [until] I told them [deleted text: the] how I came to loose [lose] it which caused another great laugh. I now lay down before the fire to rest for I felt much fatigued. though I felt much better than [added text: when] I left Princeton, my Jaw had been running freely during the day and had ceased hurting and nearly suaged [assuaged] .




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To listen to the Travels of the regit [regiment] . since I had been absent, their tents had all been burned at Cotton hill for want of conveyanc [conveyance] the wagons having been sent back to Lewisburg or Jacksons River for clothing, & every thing [everything] else was destroyed except what they could carry in their knapsacks. we were now in the wood with out [without] any sheltering except a few tent flyes [flies] they had got hold of.. & from 12 to 15 sleeping under each one, they had now procured about as many cooking vessels as before (by pressing, as the boys term it) from virginia regts [regiments],


Sunday morning, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

the weather is extremely cold this morning, I find some excitement among the boys about where we are to put up winter quarters all object to staying here, but express a great anxiety to go to Georgia. or if not to go farther. south. or any where to get out of these mountains, & from under Old Floyd, (as the boys call him)

Monday Dec [December] 2nd,, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

nothing of


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importance. the clouds are banking up & the prospect for snow is good,


Tuesday Dec [December] 3rd, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

after a slight rain in the night and now the earth is frozen with a sheet of ice upon top,


Wednesday Dec [December] 4th, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

We were visited by snow during the last night. to about shoe mouth deep and the weather is horribly cold this morning, the 45th Virginia regt [regiment] ordered to put up huts, great excitement among the officers & soldiers who agree in refusing to put up here..


Thursday 5th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

orders to Doublin [Dublin] Depot on the Virginia & Tenn [Tennessee] rail road [railroad] .


Sunday evening 3, oclock [o'clock] [View Civil War timeline for this date]

now at dublin a beautiful valley between the blue ridge & alighanies [alleghenies], for four miles back the prettiest country seen since, around Richmond, after a travel of 25 miles from our camp near Peterstown,


Friday night Dec [December] 13th.. 9 oclock [o'clock] . [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

the long desired news has come at last a telegraphic dispatch for the


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13th Reg. Ga vol. [Regiment Georgia volunteers] to report themselves at Charleston S.C [South Carolina],, I happened to be at the depot to see a couple of friend [friends] of Philips. who were going home, when the dispatch came,, I could not believe it untill [until] I saw the copy that was drawn for "Colonel Ector",, I then made my way to camps as quick as convenient & told the good news, but others were as I had been, the news had come so often before, & turned out to be false, that nothing Short of a sight of the dispatch would satisfy them of its reality,, I told them that I had read it. they believed me but suspected a wrong somewhere, But in a short time, a most prodegious [prodigious] yell broke out about the Colonels tent which brought faith, and the yelling spread like fire in hay untill [until] the wood around us rang & the echo sounded for miles around, New life & vigor pervaded every system,, & every object unfurled new beauties, & the dead wood [deadwood]


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almost looked alive,


Saturday Dec [December] 14th. [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

The regiment drew 5 days ration,, Evening ordered to cook it & be in readiness by six oclock [o'clock] on the following morning, at the Depot,, finished cooking about 12 oclock [o'clock] at night & retired to rest but not to sleep, for the whole camp was in a perfect glee untill [until] the hour had come to pack our now handfull [handful] of baggage,, before the appointed hour all was ready & I as others impatiently waiting for the hour of 8, when the whistle should blow, and waft us on its swift [deleted text: from] wings from a horrible country, & an unloyal [disloyal] people,, 8, oclock [o'clock] & the whistle blew and soon we were flying on the way to Lynchburg, Although our boxes were freight boxes, such as we had before complained of,, but now very acceptable. the weather very cold, we without stove or fire but comfortable enough, we had oftentimes been compelled to disregard Sunday in preparing to fight, marching, firing off our guns, but now we


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I must acknowledge volunterily [voluntarily] held that day in perfect disregard, with as much whiskey as could be considered healthy, card playing. & yelling. seemed to be the order of the day. at 8. oclock [o'clock] we were at Lynchburg. remained two or three hours. changed cars for Petersburg, & traveled only about 10 miles during the night,, about day dawn. the whistle blew and we rattled off. & arrived at Petersburg 4 oclock [o'clock] in the afternoon, remained untill [until] 10. oclock [o'clock] & arrived at weldon 4 in the morning but met with no delay here but after a steady days travel we rested the night at Wilmington N.-C.- [North Carolina] .


[deleted text: Thursday] [added text: Wednesday] Dec. [December] 18th.. morning 8 oclock [o'clock] .

we met at the River Wharf. and soon crossed a steam boat being ready to carry us. As we glided smoothly over the still calm waters without a wave or bubble to impede our progress. we glide along like the moments to the careless idler we scarcely know from whince [whence] we started or whither we goeth [go], But


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when we cast our eyes back upon the rageing [raging] foaming billows in our wake, the scene is changed; the still waters are troubled, & the rising billows foam & lash as they roll back from the wheel houses in mad fury tossing the little life skiff to & fro, as it tugs heavily against the stern line, fastening its bow A little farther and the waves separate forming curved & horrizontal [horizontal] lines pointing to each shore. proudly and majestically chasing each other in uniform motions, presenting to the eye a scene beautifully sublime,, nine oclock [o'clock] we take the train passenger boxes for florence arrived about. 7, oc [o'clock] evening changed cars. freight box'es [boxes] & arrived at Charleston S.C. [South Carolina] at sun up Thursday morning Dec [December] 19th, We were left to roam where ever we pleased untill [until] 11, oclock [o'clock] . when we met again at an appointed place, & marched to the Charleston & savannah rail road [railroad] depot 2 1/2 miles from the


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City: where we remained untill [until] Friday morning 10 oclock [o'clock] . Dec [December] 20th. We had received orders. for Savannah Georgia,, I will digress here to give a short sketch of the country we have passed over, From Dublin to Lynchburg the country is mountanious [mountainous] . the blue peaks rising high on each side like cloud caps in the mist of a fogy [foggy] morning. the rail road [railroad] running through a narrow valley between the blue ridge and Allighanies [Alleghenies], The valley lands ri[deleted text: t] ch with beautiful green pastures Strange to [added text: see] nature lavishing so much wealth & beauty. amid rough cragged mountains,, from Lynchburg to Petersburg gradually changing from mountainous to a level country,, from Petersburg to Weldon level light sandy land. Weldon to Wilmington level fine land with frequent marshes of cane growth. Cotton. corn. tobacco. rosin turpentine. the principle production. From Wilmington to Charleston level lands & more enclined [inclined] to be marshy, pine growth turpentine the principle production, some


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corn, Cotton, rice also produced. At 10, oclock [o'clock] Friday morning we left Charleston, S.–C. [South Carolina] for Savannah, Ga. [Georgia],, [deleted text: changed cars at florence 70] The country is low flat, swampy. with cain [cane] marshes intermingled with live oak, with the long green moss hanging from every limb & branch. Rice the general production some corn. & cotton – but the country too low & marshy for its adaption [adoption], this rail road [railroad] is built by throwing up the track from 3 to four feet above a level the marshes are bridged. composing at least one tenth (1/10) of the road, no embankment over ten feet no cut over 3 feet except one, about 12 feet, the dry land is gladey pine land, Arrived at S. [Savannah] 7, oclock [o'clock] evening of Friday Dec [December] 20th,, Marched one & half miles through the City to a beautiful green common, in the edge of the same, where we found tents already brought out for us,, remained untill [until] Tuesday 24th. ordered & moved to Caustins bluff. 5 miles east of the


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City on St Augustine creek,


Wednesday Dec [December] 25th . [View Civil War timeline for this date]

Although this is Christmas day, but like Sundays,, Is passing as other days with out [without] unusual excitement. or gravity,,


Thursday Dec [December] 26th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

We are encamped on a beautiful plain surrounded by a nice grove of live oak cedar & pine. with the moss hanging from every limb & branch, the weather is very warm. pleasant without a coat. Altogether making a striking contrast with the snow clad mountains of Virginia,, Water very strongly tinctured with lime


Friday Dec [December] 27th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

nothing of importance the Christmas holidays are passing away as other days


Saturday Dec [December] 28th [View Civil War timeline for this date]

I feel very much indisposed.


Sunday,, Dec [December] 29th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

Still worse, with evident symptoms of cold, feverish sensations & general debility of the system,,


Monday Dec [December] 30th. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

high inflamation [inflammation] of stomach and bowels,,


Tuesday 31st. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

Still no better Evening with high fever after taking three opium pills I find that I am getting still worse.,,


Wednesday Jan [January] 1st. 1862. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

I this morning again applied to Beasley Assistant Surgeon for medicine he now told me that


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he had none to apply to my case, but [deleted text: he] was willing to grant me a certificate for a furlough. [deleted text: of] which I have sent to General Lawton for approval., Nothing of importance is transpiring in the vicinity, guard duty now is very heavy. each man having to stand every other day & night.


Thursday Jan [January] 2nd. night 8, oclock [o'clock] [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

still no better, My furlough having been approved & a conveyance. to the city to night [tonight] I will leave the camp, Friday evening half past one.. leave savannah for Macon. From thence to East Point. From thence to Hopsons cut. Atlanta & Westpoint road. arrived Hopsons cut. 6 oclock [o'clock]


Sunday morning Jan [January] 5th 62.,, [View Civil War timeline for this date]

I now felt greatly revived in body & mind I had been actually mending since Friday morning,, I will leave that I cannot describe to the imagination of all who may read this feeble sketch, untill [until] I again return to camp,,


On Wednesday Feb [February] the 11 or 13th. 62 [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology] I again return to camp where I met my comerades [comrades] which was like the meeting of my kin at home


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I found them busily engaged at work upon a sand battery near the camp. one company relieved another so that each company works half each day & occasionly [occasionally] some companies work at night. the battery is to consist of five guns. 4 magazines & one skuttle [scuttle] for the reliefs safety.,,


March 11th 62. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

False alarm 11. OC [o'clock] at night.


March 18th 62. [View Civil War timeline for this date]

Another false alarm 12. oclock [o'clock] at night,,


March 20th [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

Order read on dress parade to have knapsacks packed & hold ourselves in readiness at a moments warning to march, Officialy [Officially] reported that the enemy is landing at Bluffton S. C. [South Carolina] Ten miles above here,,


Sunday evening March 30th,, [View Civil War timeline for this date | View Jenkins Chronology]

17, scouts under Adutant [Adjutant] Hill Sent to Whitemarsh Island. Who have returned 3, oclock [o'clock] with two captured [deleted text: prisners] [added text: yankees] . and a dutchman citizan [citizen] of Wilmington Island. who had previously been taken by the yanks, Companies(B). C. & G. ordered to prepare immediately under command of Capt [Captain] Crawford of (Co [Company] G) we left the camp about dark, Crossed Augustine creek upon


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oakland Island, at Caustin Bluff battery. While passing a cross [across] this Island along a narrow path enclosed by thick underwood [under wood], all at once all were silent & still as death.! a moment more & the gunlocks began to rattle like fire in a cainbrake [canebrake] ! Two seconds & all was again still! A human form was seen! The Capt [Captain] demanded his countersign there were two who proved to be pickets for a squad of the 13th left by Adutant [Adjutant] Hill in the evening,, We passed along to the old bridge 2 1/2 miles from Caustins Bluff. & crossed the creek on Whitemarsh Island. While here waiting for the other two companies that we had left crossing Augustine creek. A noise was heard in the marsh. mistaken for the tread of human footsteps. All was again hushed, The Capt [Captain] ordered us to divide on either side of the path. that led through the marsh to the high land, & He with two others advanced to the wood, All were now in suspense, I did not like our


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position. I went to the wood. but before I got there I was releaved [relieved] by the hissing. & familiar noise of an Alligator,, We now became tired waiting for the rear party & determined to wait no longer, after leaving a picket at our little boat. we proceeded a mile to an old house. but found nothing, here,, then from thence to the Gibson place 1 1/2 miles farther with like success. & from thence to the Turner place 2 miles farther, on nearing this place. (It being now 2, oc [o'clock] at night) we perceived [deleted text: that] a brillant [brilliant] light in one of the cabins. the advance guard (of which I was one) had surrounded the house before the party came up,, The men on seeing the light smelt a mice [mouse], or a yank. and began backing scattering out, & cocking their guns,, I could not imagine for a time the cause,, I first thought they had seen some one in the diriction [direction] they were going then I saw their faces & guns all turn to the cabins. I then knew they expected danger from there, I now felt rather


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in a critical position. for I was near the house & in their full view, I knew I was no yankee but did they know it, I was afraid to speak or move for fear of being fired upon. for a yankee,, I stood for a moment & stept [stepped] cautiously behind the house, The occupants of the house were negroes left upon the Island. we found no boats here to pass across to Wilmington, & returned to the Gibson Place. As we neared the place. low depressed coughing was heard. we expected our rear scout. but crept up noiselessly within full view, When Capt [Captain] demanded who comes there, A reply came, Friend with the counter sign (all else was perfect silence) Capt [Captain] : Advance and give the countersign. all again still for a moment, then rapid cocking of firelocks was heard in every direction, in two seconds more all again silent Capt [Captain] again in his usual firm calm voice demanded the countersign, Then a trembling voice: Capt [Captain] McCallay. I know your voice, Lieut [Lieutenant] Redding Co [Company] E [unclear text: th] . We here lay in ambush around the landing untill [until] day.(It being now 3, oc [o'clock] )An hour by sun we. with exception of a small scout party under Adutant [Adjutant] Hill went to the


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Turner place to take our boats for Wilmington. (they were to meet us there) Just as the boats came Hill sent a messenger for us to go to his assistance, They are coming, we now quicked it back but found when we got there they had turned back. 17 were left under command of Lieut [Lieutenant] Robertson to guard this & the remainder of us went over up on Wilmington. We then started out into two parties Capt [Captain] McCallay with, co [company] B. were to go to the hunter place & from there to the Scriven place & attack the yanks first while the other party were to go to the Scriven place & there lay in [deleted text: at] ambush untill [until] the commencement & then come up in thier [their] rear. but before we had got to the scriven place we heard sharp firing in the direction we went double quick (a mile) untill [until] we came in sight, When we saw co [company] G. quickening towards us. Capt [Captain] Crawford with his co- [company] G. were ordered by Hill back to our fleet of skiffs to prevent being cut off. He now told Capt [Captain] McCallay that Hill had ordered him McCalley back. The firing we heard was upon Whitemarsh, between our pickets there & the yanks after a warm contest wounding one of our [illegible text] back to the boats, We soon after this


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heard sharp shooting at Scriven place.. a few moments more & another volley. & all was over the enemy surrendered 16 in number. one killed three wounded with but two scattering shots from them an eight oared barge boat with a six pound field Piece upon its bow,, together with their small arms the prisners [prisoners] were sent on immediately but some of us were here delayed untill [until] about ten OC [o'clock] at night when we started for Thunderbolt and after very heavy oaring against the tide we arrived at 3. oc [o'clock] in the morning of Tuesday. (some of the boats however reached thunderbolt several hours in advance of us) here we remained untill [until] morning where I lay upon the ground & Slept untill [until] sun rise. when we again put out for camps and reached them at 9, oc [o'clock] in the morning

The end of the Book but to be continued in next


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