Cyrus F. Jenkins Diary
Players and Places
Please note that at the time Jenkins wrote West Virginia was not yet a state and was known as western Virginia. It became a state on June 20, 1863.
Part of the Appalachian mountain system that extends through Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. West of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
Jenkins travels to Atlanta from Savannah, Georgia while on furlough in the first week of January 1862. During the war, Atlanta was an important military, industrial, and transportation center. The city also had hospitals and an arsenal. In 1861, the Western & Atlantic, Macon & Western, Atlanta and West Point, and Georgia rail companies serve the city.
A creek on Oakland Island, Chatham County, Georgia that flows into the Savannah River at Port Wentworth. According to Georgia Place Names, it is sometimes erroneously labeled on maps as St. Augustine Creek.
The 18th Georgia Infantry Regiment is stationed at Ball Hill, near Sewell, in what is now West Virginia, in October of 1861.
Big Sewell Mountain
Mountain in Fayette County in what is now West Virginia. Its elevation is 3000-3500 feet. Jenkins camps here in mid-September 1861.
Blue Sulphur Springs
Located in Greenbriar County in what is now West Virginia. In October 1861, Jenkins sends, under General Floyd's orders, an ill soldier to Blue Sulphur Springs where presumably there is medical care available. The ill soldier is sent back to Jenkins.
Located about four miles from Lewisburg, West Virginia. The regiment arrives here en route to Meadow's Bluff in early September 1861.
Named for Thomas Causton, this bluff in Chatham County, Georgia is the site of Fort Bartow.
Refers to a spring in Cox Cave, near Brumboo's Mill, West Virginia.
Surgeon possibly for the 50th Virginia Regiment. Jenkins mentions that Barber claims he "killed a beef" for the 13th Regiment, but that the meat was given instead to the 50th and 51st Virginia Regiments.
Beasley, Stephen T.
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company K. Enlists July 8, 1861. Appointed Assistant Surgeon July 17, 1861. Resigns March 21, 1862.
Beckley (W. Va.)
Located in Randolph County, in what is now West Virginia. It is the county seat of Randolph County. In November 1861, Jenkins is ordered to go to the courthouse in Beckley, three miles from their camp, when he falls ill.
Blue Ridge Mountains
Part of the Appalachian mountain system that extends from Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, through parts of western Virginia, western North Carolina, and north Georgia. East of the Allegheny Mountains.
Located in Beaufort County, South Carolina, along the southern coast of the Altantic Ocean. On March 20, 1862, Jenkins mentions that reports predict that Federal troops would land at Bluffton, which is ten miles north of Jenkins' position guarding the Georgia coast.
Seaport in Charleston County, South Carolina. In 1861, the Charleston and Savannah and Northeastern lines serve the city.
Located in Mecklenburg County in southern North Carolina. In 1861, the Charlotte and South Carolina and North Carolina lines serve the city. In late July 1861, Jenkins' regiment spends the night in Charlotte on their way north to Virginia. He describes the water as tinctured with lime.
Clarke, C. E.
Surgeon, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment. Enlists July 8, 1861. Resigns April 17, 1862.
Clarke, William A.
Captain, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company E. Enlists July 8, 1861. Resigns April 23, 1862.
Located in Richland County, western central South Carolina along the Congaree River. Capital of the state, county seat, and judicial seat, the city is served by the Charlotte and South Carolina and South Carolina rail lines. In July 1861, Jenkins' regiment spends a day at Columbia on its way north to Virginia and are given leave to tour the city. Jenkins describes the beauty of Mrs. Hampton's flower garden and greenhouse, as well as the lifelike accuracy of the cast iron palmetto tree in the State House yard.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th
Ultimately part of Evans' Brigade in Gordon's Division of the 2nd Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A., the 13th Regiment forms in Griffin, Georgia, July 8, 1861, with ten companies. They begin service in Floyd's Brigade in West Virginia, but by January 1862 are reassigned to Lawton's Brigade at Savannah. Reorganized in May 1862 as part of the Lawton-Gordon-Evans Georgia Brigade, the 13th Regiment serves with distinction in Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia from the Seven Days battles around Richmond, Virginia (May-June 1862) until Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House (April 9, 1865). With Floyd they see minor action at the Battles of Sewell Mountain and Laurel Hill before being returned to Georgia due to lack of supplies suitable for winter in West Virginia. Under Lawton at the coast, they engage in a number of skirmishes, including the capture of a gunboat that afterward bore their name and a fight with the 8th Regiment of Michigan on Whitemarsh Island, Georgia, April 16, 1862. In May 1862, under Lawton, they join an elite brigade of six regiments, totalling almost 7000 men, and are sent to Lynchburg and the Shenandoah Valley to reinforce Stonewall Jackson. This movement is part of General Lee's plan to distract Union attention from his planned offensive against McClelland's forces around Richmond, Virginia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company A
Also known as the Confederate Guards. Consists of soldiers from Pike County, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company B
Also known as the Meriwether Volunteers. Consists of soldiers from Meriwether and Troup Counties, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company C
Also known as the Ringgold Rangers. Consists of soldiers from Spalding County, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company E
Also known as the Randolph Volunteers. Consists of soldiers from Randolph and Terrell Counties, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company G
Also known as the Early Guards. Consists of soldiers from Early County, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company I
Also known as the Stark Volunteers. Consists of soldiers from Spalding County, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 13th. Company K
Also known as Evans' Guards. Consists of soldiers from Evans and Troup Counties, Georgia.
Confederate States of America. Army. Georgia Infantry Regiment, 18th
Part of the Army of Northern Virginia. The regiment has ten companies consisting of men from Bartow, Cobb, Dooly, Dougherty, Gordon, Jackson, and Newton counties. Companies include the Acworth Infantry, Davis Guards, Davis Invincibles, Dooly Light Infantry, Jackson County Volunteers, Lewis Volunteers, Newton County Rifles, Rowland Highlanders, Rowland Infantry, and Stephens Infantry.
A short ridge south of the Kanawha River in Fayette County in what is now West Virginia. In late October 1861, Floyd orders the regiment to the foot of Cotton Hill. On November 12, 1861, there is a skirmish on Laurel Creek near Cotton Hill. All of the regiments' tents are burned as they have no way to transport them.
Located in Alleghany County, the town is a county seat and located along the Covington and Ohio Railroad.
Crawford, Joel T., d. 1862
Captain, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company G. Enlists July 8, 1861. Wounded at Cold Harbor, Virginia on June 27, 1862. Dies of wounds and pneumonia in Bellevue Hospital at Richmond, Virginia on December 7, 1862.
Located along the Gauley River in what is now West Virginia. The 13th Georgia Infantry is ordered to join General Floyd's brigade which is stationed at the Gap on August 24th, 1861.
Douglass, Marcellus, d. 1862
Captain, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company E. Enlists June 19, 1861. Elected Lieutenant Colonel July 8, 1861; Colonel February 1, 1862. Killed at Sharpsburg, Maryland, September 17, 1862. Buried in Cuthbert, Georgia.
Post village in Pulaski County, Virginia and at this time a stop on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad Company line. Jenkins and the regiment travel from here to Lynchburg, Virginia on their way to Savannah, Georgia in late December 1861.
East Point (Ga.)
Eastern terminus of the Atlanta and West Point Rail Road line in Georgia.
Ector, Walton, 1820-1862
Captain, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Enlists May 1, 1861. Elected Colonel July 8, 1861. Dies Feb. 1, 1862. (Records also show he had been Major General, 9th Division Ga. Militia and that he had served in the Mexican War.)
Emlin, C. W., d. 1861
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Enlists July 8, 1861. Absent, sick, November 8, 1861. Jenkins reports his death on November 27, 1861.
Fayette County (W. Va.)
South central county in what is now West Virginia along the Allegheny plateau.
City in eastern South Carolina. Jenkins stops in Florence on his way by rail to Charleston in mid-December 1861. The Northeastern and Wilmington & Manchester railways serve Florence.
Floyd, John B. (John Buchanan), 1806-1863
Before serving as a Confederate General, Floyd was a member of the Virginia state legislature (1847-48; 1855), served as governor of Virginia on the states' rights platform (1849-52), and served as United States Secretary of War. Floyd initially opposes secession, but his growing belief in the Southern cause leads him to resign in 1860 from the Cabinet post to which President James Buchanan had appointed him in 1857. When the Civil War begins, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Floyd Brigadier General. In 1862 he commands the Confederate forces at Fort Donelson in Tennessee, but withdraws his brigade before the surrender. For this he is relieved of command, but the Virginia assembly later makes him a major general of Virginia troops.
Gauley River (W. Va.)
River in central West Virginia. It joins with the New River in northern Fayette County to form the Kanawha River.
Property on Whitemarsh Island, Chatham County, Georgia.
Greenbrier River (W. Va.)
River in southeastern West Virginia that flows into the New River.
Green Sulphur Springs
Located in Summers County, West Virginia. The town had a post office.
Quarter Master Gray.
Possibly the Quarter Master of a North Carolina regiment. Jenkins mentions that he has to request permission from Gray for one of Gray's wagoners to take the sick James Hancock to White Sulphur Springs. Gray disappoints Jenkins by rudely denying the request.
Green, d. 1861
Virginia 13th Regiment, Company A. Jenkins mentions the death of Green at the fight at Cotton Hill, which occurred on November 12, 1861 during his absence due to mumps. According to Jenkins, he was the only Confederate killed, while 70 Union troops were killed.
Green, L. J., d. 1890
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company A. Enlists July 8, 1861. Appointed Assistant Surgeon; Adjutant. Surrendered, Appomattox, Virginia April 9, 1865. Returned to Zebulon, Pike County, Georgia where he practiced medicine. Dies in January 1890.
Now in Spalding County. Griffin is incorporated in 1843 in what is then Pike County. Jenkins stays in Griffin in an abandoned mansion until the troops are mustered July 10, 1861.
Either Mary Cantey Hampton or Caroline Hampton Preston, 1872-1948. Jenkins describes Mrs. Hampton's garden while visiting Columbia. The gardens of the Hampton-Preston House, located at 1615 Blanding Street, were developed by Mary Cantey Hampton, third wife of Wade Hampton, 1752-1835. After Wade Hampton's death, Caroline Hampton Preston, his daughter, and her husband, John S. (John Smith) Preston, 1809-1881 occupy the house. In 1865 the house serves as Union Headquarters. Preston sells the home in 1873. The mansion now operates as a historic house museum.
Hancock, James G.
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company E. Enlists June 3, 1862 (this date seems to be wrong since Jenkins mentions him in 1861). Surrendered, Appomattox, Virginia April 9, 1865.
Mouth of the Gauley River and head of the Kanawha River in what is now West Virginia.
Stop on the Atlanta and West Point rail line between East Point and Atlanta.
Property on Wilmington Island, Georgia.
Hendon, Frank R., b. 1834?
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Enlists July 8, 1861. Appointed 4th Sergeant, October 16, 1861. Appears last on roll for Nov. 8, 1861.
Hill, J. D., d. 1862
2nd Lieutenant, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company K. Enlists July 8, 1861. Appointed Adjutant, July 8, 1861. Killed at Sharpsburg, Maryland, Sept. 17, 1862.
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, B. Enlists July 8, 1861. (Jenkins called him Alfred) On extra duty in Newnan, Georgia, on account of disability, February 28, 1865. No later record.
Jackson River (Va.)
River in western Virginia that joins with the Cowpasture River to form the James River.
James River (Va.)
River that flows from central Virginia into the Chesapeake Bay near Hampton Roads. It is navigable to Richmond.
Jenkins, Cyrus Franklin, d. 1864
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Enlists July 8, 1861. Killed in Spotsylvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864.
Kanawha River (W. Va.)
Navigable river that flows from western West Virginia into the Ohio River.
Kelley, Morris A., d. 1863
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Enlists July 8, 1861. Dies of typhoid fever in General Hospital at Staunton, Virginia, July 26, 1863. Buried there in Thornrose Cemetary.
A creek and small left-hand tributary to the New River in West Virginia in Fayette County. Cotton Hill is located along the creek.
Lawton, Alexander R., 1818-1896
General & Staff Brigadier General. A graduate of Harvard Law School, Lawton practiced in Georgia. He seized Fort Pulaski under the governor's orders before Georgia left the Union, and became brigadier general in April 1861. He became quartermaster general in 1863. Later, he was president of the American Bar Association, and in 1887, he became U.S. minister to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Lee, Robert E. (Robert Edward), 1807-1870
General. Lee commanded the Army of Northern Virginia, the most successful of the Confederate armies during the Civil War. In February 1865 he was given command of all the Confederate armies. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 is commonly viewed as signifying the end of the Civil War.
Lewisburg (W. Va.)
County seat of Greenbriar County, West Virginia and site of Fort Savannah. The city is served by the Virginia and Tennessee, Orange and Alexandria, and South Side lines in 1861.
Creek presumably in Fayette County, West Virginia.
Located in Campbell County, Virginia and a stop on the Virginia & Tennessee Rail Road and the South Side Rail Road. During the war, the city also serves as a medical and supply center.
Located in Bibb County, Georgia and served by the Macon & Western Rail Road and Central of Georgia Railway. Jenkins travels through Macon en route to Atlanta while on leave from Savannah.
Also known as McCauley or McCallay. Captain, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. Enlists July 8, 1861. Resigns Aug. 7th, 1863.
Located near Fayettesville, Fayette County, West Virginia.
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company A. Enlists July 8, 1861. Wounded at Spotsylvania, Virginia May 12, 1864. Dies at home after the war.
Meadow Bluff (W. Va.)
Located in Greenbriar County, West Virginia near Sewell Mountain. The town had a post office. The regiment passes through during its retreat from Sewell Mountain in late September 1861.
Meadow River (W. Va.)
River in south central West Virginia. It flows from Greenbriar County, forms the border between Nicholas and Fayette Counties, and joins with the Gauley River.
Mercer County (W. Va.)
County located on the Alleghany Plateau.
Meriwether County (Ga.)
Once part of Troup County, Meriwether County's seat is Greenville.
New River (N.C.-W. Va.)
River that flows through Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. It joins with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River in northern Fayette County.
Island near Savannah.
Owens, Daniel L.
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company K. Enlists July 8, 1861. Elected 2nd Lieutenant, June 10, 1863. Captured at Spotsylvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864. Released at Fort Delaware, Delaware, June 16, 1865.
City in Dinwiddie County, Virginia served by the South Side Railway, Richmond & Danville, and Petersburg lines in 1861.
Peterstown (W. Va.)
Located in Monroe County, West Virginia on Rich Creek.
Philips, J. C., b. ca. 1835
Private, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company B. July 8, 1861. Sick at Jackson River, November 8, 1861. No later record.
Princeton (W. Va.)
County seat of Mercer County, West Virginia.
Redding, William R., d. 1864
2nd Lieutenant, 13th Georgia Infantry Regiment, Company E. Enlists June 19, 1861. Elected 2nd Lieutenant April 23, 1862; 1st Lieutenant December 2, 1862; Captain April 4, 1864. Wounded at Fisher's Hill, Virginia, September 22, 1864. Dies of wounds, October 3, 1864.
State capital and county seat of Wake County, North Carolina. In 1861 the Raleigh and Gaston and North Carolina lines serve the city.
Capital of the Confederacy, state capital, and county seat of Henrico County, Virginia. Richmond is accessed by the Virginia Central, Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac, Richmond and Danville, and Richmond and Petersburg lines in 1861.
Saint Augustine Creek (Ga.)
See Augustine Creek.
Major port located in Chatham County, Georgia.
Sewell (W. Va.)
Located in Fayette County, the village had a post office.
Sewell Mountain (W. Va.)
Fayette County, West Virginia.
Shady Spring (W. Va.)
Post office village located in Raleigh County in what is now West Virginia.
Located in Augusta County, Virginia, this is the 13th Regiment's first stop on their way to join Floyd's troops. They receive arms and other supplies here.
Located in Chatham County, Georgia and site of a garrison.
Property on Whitemarsh Island, Chatham County, Georgia approximately two miles from Gibson Place.
Walker, Leroy Pope, 1817-1884
Prominent Alabama lawyer and secessionist, Walker serves as the Confederate Secretary of War from February 21, 1861 - September 17, 1861. He resigns because of poor health and criticism of his performance. Next, he becomes a Brigadier General, but resigns in March 1862. In 1864 he presides over a military court. After the war, he returns to his career as a lawyer and politician.
Located along the Roanoke River in northern Halifax County and in 1861 served by the Wilmington and Weldon, Raleigh and Gaston, and Petersburg lines.
White Sulphur Springs (W. Va.)
Post office village located in Greenbrier County on Howards Creek.
Whitemarsh Island (Ga.)
Located in Chatham County, Georgia.
Major port city located in southeastern North Carolina in New Hanover County. During the war, it is a port of entry for Confederate blockade runners and is served by the Wilmington and Manchester and Wilmington and Weldon lines in 1861.
Wilmington Island (Ga.)
Island below Savannah that is east of Skidaway Island and west of Tybee Island.
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