Cyrus F. Jenkins Civil War Diary, 1861-1862
Civil War Timeline: June 30, 1861 - 1862
30 June 1861 (Sunday)
C.S.S. Sumter escapes the blockade at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
1 July 1861 (Monday)
The War Department authorizes raising troops in Kentucky and Tennessee. Petrel, a private Confederate ship, escapes a Federal blockade and enters the sea at Charleston, S.C.
2 July 1861 (Tuesday)
Lincoln suspends habeas corpus on military lines between Washington and New York. General Robert Patterson's Federal troops cross the Potomac and head towards Martinsburg, Virginia to engage Johnston's troops while McDowell moves to Manassas. In Wheeling, West Virginia the newly recognized legislature convenes.
3 July 1861 (Wednesday)
Patterson's arrival in Martinsburg causes Johnston's troops to pull back.
4 July 1861 (Thursday)
Independence Day is celebrated in both the Union and Confederate states. At a special session of Congress, Lincoln requests an additional 400,000 Union troops and reiterates his position on the indivisibility of the Union. There is a brief skirmish at Harper's Ferry.
5 July 1861 (Friday)
In Carthage, Missouri, Federal troops attack Missouri troops under the command of Missouri's Confederate-sympathizing governor, Claiborne Jackson. Outnumbering the Federal troops, the Confederate troops score a victory. Franz Sigel's troops are pushed back through Carthage, Missouri.
6 July 1861 (Saturday)
C.S.S Sumter arrives in Cuba with seven captured Union ships: Cuba, Machia, Ben Dunning, Albert Adams, Niad, West Wind, and Lewis Kilham. Jefferson Davis, a Confederate privateer, captures two Federal ships, John Welsh and Enchantress near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
7 July 1861 (Sunday)
After heading further north, Jefferson Davis captures the Union schooner S. J. Waring about 150 miles east of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. The Federal ship, Resolute, picks up two mines in the Potomac River.
8 July 1861 (Monday)
General Henry Hopkins Sibley is appointed head of the Confederate troops in the New Mexico Territory. In Missouri, Federal troops expel a group of Confederates.
10 July 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln writes Simon B. Buckner, Inspector General of Kentucky's militia. In his letter, Lincoln states that Federal troops will not enter Kentucky, a neutral state. McClellan places brigades, under the command of General William S. Rosecrans, at Buckhannon and at Philippi in West Virginia to meet Confederate forces at Rich Mountain. General T. A. Moreland's troops are sent to Laurel Hill, Virginia.
11 July 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins Chronology]
Rosecrans' troops cut off Lieutenant Colonel Pegram's forces, while at Laurel Hill, General Robert S. Garnett's troops evacuate. Through these victories, access to the road to Beverly, Virginia is regained. The Senate resolves to expel Senators Robert Thomas Bragg (North Carolina), Thomas Lanier Clingman (North Carolina), John Hemphill (Texas), Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (Virginia), James Murray Mason (Virginia), Charles Burton Mitchel (Arkansas), Alfred Osborn Pope Nicholson (Tennessee), William King Sebastian (Arkansas), and Louis Trezevant Wigfall (Texas).
12 July 1861 (Friday)
Garnett continues his retreat into the Cheat River Valley as McCellan arrives in Beverly, Virginia. After their arrival in the Great Kanawah Valley by boat, Cox and his troops move towards General Henry Wise's forces.
13 July 1861 (Saturday)
Garnett dies in a battle at Carrickford, Virginia and becomes the first general to perish in the war. Confederate Lieutenant Colonel Pegram surrenders 555 of his men. The victory enables federal troops to keep the railroads running through the northwestern part of Virginia. The Senate expels Missouri representative John Clark.
14 July 1861 (Sunday)
Pressing farther into Virginia, General McDowell advances on Fairfax Courthouse, Virginia with 40,000 Union troops. The U.S.S. Wilmington establishes a partially effective blockade in the harbor at Wilmington, North Carolina. Such blockades will diminish losses from Confederate privateers who range along the coast from Maine to Galveston, Texas.
15 July 1861 (Monday)
General Patterson's pickets skirmish with Confederate cavalry as the cavalry advances toward Bunker Hill, north of Winchester. Union victories along the Cheat River in western Virginia make McClelland a hero.
16 July 1861 (Tuesday) General McDowell's troops discard much of their heavy equipment on the difficult march to Fairfax Court House. The schooner S.J. Waring, taken as a prize by the Confederates, is retaken at sea by its original crew, led by an African-American named William Tilghman, and sailed to New York.
17 July 1861 (Wednesday)
Arriving at Fairfax Court House, McDowell discovers large quantities of supplies left by the retreating Confederates. General Beauregard, stationed near Manassas, Virginia with a force of 22,000 men, requests aid to repulse the Federal advance into Virginia. Confederate President Jefferson Davis orders General Joseph Johnston to Manassas.
18 July 1861 (Thursday)
Longstreet's Confederate forces push McDowell's Union troops back in skirmishes at Blackburn's Ford, Virginia. A small clash also occurs at Mitchell's Ford. Upon hearing of the success at Blackburn's Ford, Confederate President Jefferson Davis tells Beauregard, "God be praised for your successful beginning."
19 July 1861 (Friday)
McDowell's army regroups at Centreville, Virginia. Nearby at Manassas Junction, General Thomas J. Jackson arrives with his Confederate brigade in advance of Joe Johnston's force moving from Winchester.
20 July 1861 (Saturday)
Johnston's 1,400 Confederate troops join Jackson's 2,500 troops at Manassas to prepare for the imminent battle with McDowell's 1,300 Union troops situated near Sudley Ford on Bull Run, a creek running by Manassas. The battle will be known as First Bull Run to Northerners and First Manassas to Southerners, since a second battle takes place here in August 1862. McDowell makes plans to strike the Confederates' left flank.
21 July 1861 (Sunday)
General N.G. Evans meets McDowell's troops as they approach from Sudley Ford and holds the position until noon when they fall back to Henry House Hill, where Evans and Jackson make a strong stand. Here Jackson's strong defense earns him the nickname "Stonewall." McDowell's forces advance on Henry House Hill, but are driven back in defeat. Panic causes many of the Union troops to scatter. Jefferson Davis observes the costly Confederate victory from Manassas, Virginia.
22 July 1861 (Monday)
The Missouri State Convention meets at Jefferson, voting to uphold the Union and providing for a new government to be established at St. Louis. However, pro-South Missouri Governor Claiborne Jackson continues to claim his administration is the only legal body in the state. McDowell receives much of the blame for his loss at Bull Run, and Lincoln sends for Major General George Brinton McClellan in western Virginia to take command of the Union forces around Washington, leaving Major General Rosecrans to assume command of the Department of the Ohio. The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Crittendon Resolution, which declares that the war is being waged "to defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution and to preserve the Union," not to interfere with slavery or subjugate the South.
24 July 1861 (Wednesday)
In West Virginia, Union General Jacob Cox attacks Confederates commanded by General Henry Wise at Tyler Mountain, forcing Wise to evacuate the area around Charleston, Virginia and pull back to Gauley Bridge.
25 July 1861 (Thursday)
By a vote of 30 to 5, the U.S. Senate passes the Crittenden Resolution, a bill stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and uphold the Constitution, not to alter slavery in its established form. In Missouri, fighting breaks out at Harrisville and Dug Springs. Confederates under Captain John Baylor in the New Mexico Territory clash with Union troops from Fort Fillmore in an effort to open the Southwest to Confederate control. The Union soldiers push the Confederates back, but the next day, Baylor's troops confront Major Isaac Lynde's Union troops at Fort Fillmore and Lynde abandons the position in spite of the fact that his troops outnumber the Confederates. For this action, Lynde is discharged. In the Shenandoah Valley, Major General Banks assumes command from Brigadier General Patterson, who had been slow to attack Confederate General Johnston's troops in the Valley, allowing them to leave the Valley to support Beauregard. In St. Louis, Major General John Charles Fremont assumes command in the Western Department of Missouri. At Fort Monroe, Virginia, John LaMountain begins balloon ascents for reconnaissance of enemy areas.
27 July 1861 (Saturday)
President Lincoln places command of the Federal Army of the Potomac to General George McClelland, who replaces McDowell. Lincoln advises that Union forces push toward Tennessee by seizing Manassas Junction, Virginia, and Strasburg, Kentucky, in the strategically important Shenandoah Valley.
28 July 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
At St. Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory, the Seventh U.S. Infantry surrenders without a shot to Confederates led by John R. Baylor. Confederate forces occupy New Madrid, Missouri, just across the Mississippi River from the Kentucky/Tennessee line.
30 July 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins Chronology]
Union General Benjamin Butler at Fort Monroe, Virginia asks Secretary of War Simon Cameron to make a determined policy concerning former slaves entering his lines seeking freedom. Butler has 900 in his care and is unclear as to their status as property. While waiting for a reply, Butler uses the former slaves to build fortifications around the area. General Cox moves his forces from Charleston up the Kanawha River to the Gauley Bridge to face General Henry A. Wise's Confederate forces. In Missouri, the State Convention votes to declare the governor's office open.
31 July 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins Chronology]
Hamilton Gamble is formally elected governor of pro-Union Missouri. Lincoln nominates Colonel Ulysses S. Grant, among others, to be Brigadier General of Volunteers.
1 August 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins Chronology]
Captain John Baylor, who routed the Union troops at Fort Fillmore, decrees that all territory in Arizona and New Mexico south of the 34th parallel belongs to the Confederate States of America. Pro-Unionists in New Mexico object to the takeover of their territory. Encouraged by the Confederate victory at Manassas, Confederate President Jefferson Davis urges General Johnston to take further action in Virginia. Davis sends his advisor, General Robert E. Lee to take command of forces in the area of West Virginia after General Garnett's defeat at Carrickford. Lincoln promotes ex-naval officer Gustavus Vasa Fox from Chief Clerk of the Naval Department to Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Fox's network of acquaintances throughout the Navy will enable him to expedite operations.
2 August 1861 (Friday)
The U.S. Congress passes a national income tax bill which also provides for tariffs to aid in the war effort. The income tax of 3% applies only to incomes exceeding $800 per year, but is never actually put into effect. Baylor's Confederates force Federal troops to evacuate Fort Stanton in the New Mexico Territory. Federals led by Nathaniel Lyon and pro-secessionists under General McCulloch clash at Dug Springs in Missouri. General Fremont sends reinforcements to General Lyon. Colonel William T. Sherman is promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteers and transferred to Kentucky as second-in-command to the ailing Robert Anderson.
3 August 1861 (Saturday)
Napoleon III of France visits Lincoln at the White House. At Hampton Roads, Virginia, John LaMountain makes the first balloon ascent in history from the deck of a Union ship, Fanny, specially fitted for the experiment. The purpose of the ascent is to observe the Confederate battery on Sewell's Point, near Hampton Roads.
5 August 1861 (Monday)
General Lyon retreats toward Springfield from Dug Springs, in the face of a larger Confederate force. The U.S.S. Vincennes captures a Confederate blockade runner, the Alvarado, and burns it off the coast of Florida near Fernandina.
6 August 1861 (Tuesday)
Lincoln is empowered by Congress to pass measures concerning army and navy actions. He decides that slaves used against the Union will be freed. The Union establishes a military camp near Lexington in neutral Kentucky as a show of force. Named Dick Robinson, the camp would become a rallying point for the mountaineers of southeastern Kentucky and eastern Tennessee to join the Union forces.
7 August 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Confederate commander General John Bankhead Magruder burns the town of Hampton, Virginia, where Union General Benjamin Butler commands Fort Monroe. Magruder blames Butler for quartering runaway slaves. The Union War Department issues a contract with J.B. Eads of St. Louis for the construction of seven ironclad river gunboats. These boats, the Cairo, Carondolet, Cincinnati, Louisville, Mound City, Pittsburg, and St. Louis, would become the backbone of Grant's western river operations.
8 August 1861 (Thursday)
The Confederate government recognizes the states of Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland and Delaware as part of the Confederacy and authorizes the raising of troops in those states. The 1st New Hampshire Volunteers wreck the Democratic Standard in Concord in response to demeaning remarks from its editor. General Butler has asked what he should do about runaway slaves that he is quartering with his troops. Fugitive slave laws still dictate that slaves must be returned to their owners. In response, Union Secretary of War Simon Cameron points out the need for Union troops to adhere to fugitive slave laws in Union territory, but that escaped slaves cannot be returned to owners in Confederate states.
9 August 1861 (Friday)
Confederate troops approach Springfield, Missouri with a combined force of nearly 11,000 men. Union General Nathaniel Lyon sets off to meet them with only 5,400 men. The Confederate privateer York captures the Union schooner George G. Baker, but the U.S.S. Union recaptures it. The Confederate crew of the York then burns the York to prevent capture off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina by the Union.
10 August 1861 (Saturday)
General Nathaniel Lyon is killed at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, where he has led 5,400 Union soldiers to meet 11,000 Confederate soldiers and Missouri militia. The Union soldiers put up a valiant fight, but after Lyon's fall at Bloody Ridge, the Federals pull back. Now commanded by Major Samuel Sturgis, the Union soldiers march to Rolla, Missouri, southwest of St. Louis. The Union withdrawl to Rolla concedes a large part of Missouri to secessionist forces. The Battle of Wilson's Creek is the second major battle between Union and Confederate forces and the second significant victory for the Confederates following that of Bull Run in Virginia. In Washington, Lincoln meets with General Winfield Scott to smooth out friction between Scott and McClellan.
12 August 1861 (Monday)
Apache Indians attack Confederates in Texas and kill 15. In the aftermath of the Battle of Wilson's Creek and the Federal retreat, Confederate commander General Ben McCulloch says that the Union people in Missouri will be protected, but that the time has come for them to choose sides. Three new wooden gunboats, Tyler, Conestoga, and Lexington, arrive at Cairo, Illinois to cover operations until the ironclads are built.
13 August 1861 (Tuesday)
In Washington, Lincoln dines with newly promoted Brigadier General Robert Anderson, the hero of Fort Sumter. CSN commander Bulloch reports from England to Confederate Secretary of the Navy Mallory that there are no iron ships in England that can carry the weight of big guns, and that he has arranged to contract with two eminent builders for a gun vessel each.
14 August 1861 (Wednesday)
The 79th New York volunteer regiment mutinies when its request for furlough is denied. Several of the ring leaders are arrested. Unsettled conditions in St. Louis, Missouri lead General John Fremont to declare martial law and suppress two newspapers for Confederate sympathies. In Richmond, President Davis proclaims the banishment of foreigners who did not recognize the government of the Confederacy.
15 August 1861 (Thursday)
Brigadier General Robert Anderson is named the new commander of the Department of the Cumberland, which consists of Kentucky and Tennessee. The 2nd Maine Volunteers mutinies, and 60 men are assigned to duty on Dry Tortugas off Key West, Florida as a disciplinary measure. General Fremont, fearing continued conflict in Missouri, requests aid from Washington. Recognizing threats from General Benjamin McCulloch and Missouri militia commander Sterling Price, Lincoln directs the War Department to arrange reinforcements for Fremont.
16 August 1861 (Friday)
Several newspapers in the Union states are brought to court for alleged pro-Confederate leanings, including the Brooklyn Eagle, the New York Journal of Commerce, and the New York Daily News. In Missouri, Union and Confederate forces clash near Fredericktown and Kirkville. Lincoln declares that the Southern states are in a state of rebellion and forbids all commerce with them.
17 August 1861 (Saturday)
The Departments of Northeastern Virginia, Washington, and the Shenandoah merge into the Army of the Potomac, which will carry the brunt of the war in the east. After turning over his Department of Virginia to Major General John E. Wool, Major General Benjamin F. Butler begins to organize forces to capture the Cape Hatteras, North Carolina area. The Union Army issues orders to provide 40 cents and one ration a day for nurses.
18 August 1861 (Sunday)
Union and Confederate cavalry skirmish at Pohick Church, Virginia. Federal Assistant Secretary of the Navy Fox receives information from Lieutenant Reigart B. Lowry, USN, that the "stone fleet" to block the inlets of the rivers in Albemarle Sound in North Carolina is ready for deployment. The heretofore successful Confederate privateer Jefferson Davis runs aground on the bar at the entry of St. Augustine, Florida.
19 August 1861 (Monday)
Union loyalists attack pro-South newspaper offices in West Chester and Easton Pennsylvania. The editor of the Essex County Democrat is tarred and feathered for the expression of Southern sympathies. The Congress of the Confederacy allies with the state of Missouri, providing for the establishment of a Confederate state government. Lincoln promotes George H. Thomas to Brigadier General. Major General Henry W. Halleck is ordered to Washington from California with the expectation that he will head the Army.
20 August 1861 (Tuesday)
Major General George Brinton McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac. Unionists hold a convention in Wheeling, western Virginia to consider the separation of the western counties from the rest of Virginia. President Davis writes Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston about complaints he received concerning the lack of proper food and care of the sick in the local military hospitals.
24 August 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
At Richmond, Virginia, the Confederacy appoints three new Confederate commissioners to Europe: John Slidell to France; James Mason to Britain; and Pierre Rost to Spain. Their mission is to gain recognition for the Confederacy and act as purchasing agents for arms, materials, and supplies. In Washington, Mrs. Rose Greenhow and Mrs. Philip Phillips are arrested on charges of corresponding with Confederates. Lincoln informs Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin that he cannot and will not remove pro-Union forces from neutral Kentucky.
26 August 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
In Virginia, skirmishes break out at Wayne Court House and Blue's House in the western regions. At Hampton Roads, Virginia, Union vessels move out toward Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in preparation for a Federal assault on Confederate fortifications. Commodore Silas Stringham and General Benjamin Butler have eight vessels and 900 men at their disposal. On the western rivers, Union Navy Captain Andrew Foote assumes command of the river forces, relieving John Rodgers.
27 August 1861 (Tuesday)
The Union lands troops under fire at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Confederate batteries fail to prevent a takeover of the area and the Confederates abandon Fort Clark without a fight, falling back to Fort Hatteras. Control of Hatteras Inlet enables the Union to crush blockade runners.
28 August 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Union forces severely damage Fort Hatteras, and Confederate forces surrender with light casualties. General Nathaniel Lyon, killed at Wilson's Creek, is buried with ceremony in St. Louis, Missouri. Union and Confederate forces skirmish at Bailey's Cross Roads, Virginia, just south of Washington. Washington Navy Yard Commander Dahlgren sends 400 seamen on the steamboat Philadelphia to Fort Ellsworth in Alexandria to increase city defenses.
30 August 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
General John Fremont in Missouri declares martial law, allows for the confiscation of property belonging to 'those who shall take up arms against the United States,' and proclaims the emancipation of slaves of pro-Southerners. Lincoln terms his action 'dictatorial.'
31 August 1861 (Saturday)
The Confederate government appoints five full generals, an unprecedented act. They are Samuel Cooper, Albert Sydney Johnston, Robert Edward Lee, Joseph Eggleston Johnston, and Pierre Gustav Toutant Beauregard. Cavalry skirmish at Munsons Hill near Annandale, Virginia.
1 September 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant assumes command of Union forces in the area of Cape Girardeau, in southeast Missouri. News of the successful Cape Hatteras operation reaches Washington, boosting Union morale. Brief skirmishes in western Virginia occur at Blue Creek, Boone Court House and Burlington.
2 September 1861 (Monday)
Lincoln, fearing that Fremont's declaration of martial law and emancipation of slaves in Missouri will upset prospects of a Union alliance with Kentucky, tells Fremont to rescind the order. The Confederates give Major General Leonidas Polk control of Arkansas and Missouri.
3 September 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Confederate General Polk orders troops led by Major General Gideon Pillow into Kentucky to hold Confederate positions there, effectively terminating Kentucky's neutral status. The Confederate Secretary of War notifies Polk to withdraw, but President Jefferson Davis overrules the order.
4 September 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Grant arrives in Cairo, Illinois to establish his headquarters. Confederate shore batteries at Hickman, Kentucky team up with the C.S.S. Jackson to fire on Union gunboats U.S.S. Tyler and Lexington on the Mississippi. Union Commander Green of the U.S.S. Jamestown captures the schooner Col. Long and scuttles her after removing her cargo. Confederate General Polk captures Columbus, Kentucky.
5 September 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln and his cabinet discuss. Fremont's future with General Winfield Scott. Hearing of Polk's move into Columbus, General Grant begins preparations for an expedition to Paducah, Kentucky, near the mouth of the Cumberland River. In St. Louis, Missouri Captain A.H. Foote of the Union Navy reports to relieve Commander J. Rodgers as overall commander of naval operations on the western rivers.
6 September 1861 (Friday)
Grant lands Union troops from transports protected by gunboats at strategically critical Paducah, Kentucky to prevent the Confederates from occupying the city. The city is captured without a shot. Union Brigadier General Charles Ferguson Smith is assigned to command western Kentucky, and Grant returns to Cairo, Illinois.
7 September 1861 (Saturday)
Reports of lavish spending by Fremont in St. Louis reach Lincoln, who asks General David Hunter to go to St. Louis and 'assist' Fremont in the administration of the Department. Confederate Sterling Price refits his Missouri Militia with arms retrieved from the Wilson's Creek battlefield, and prepares to move on Lexington, Missouri.
9 September 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Military advisers suggest to Lincoln that he should relieve Fremont of command in Missouri. While Fremont sits in St. Louis, Sterling Price advances on Lexington.
10 September 1861 (Tuesday)
The Confederates appoint General Albert Sydney Johnston head of Tennessee, Missouri, Arkansas and Kentucky. Fremont's wife delivers his message to Lincoln that he will rescind the emancipation order only if Lincoln orders it. Lincoln shows his displeasure and Mrs. Fremont defends her husband and leaves the White House in a huff to return to Missouri. Union Brigadier General George H. Thomas assumes command of Camp Dick Robinson in Kentucky. In western Virginia, Union General Rosecrans attacks the Confederates at Carnifix Ferry, but cannot break their lines. Nonetheless, the Confederates withdraw, yielding the field to the Union. To the north, General Robert E. Lee plans his assault on Cheat Mountain near the Pennsylvania line.
11 September 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln writes to Fremont that he will order that the clause in Fremont's proclamation regarding confiscation of property and emancipation of slaves be modified to conform with current law and established acts of Congress. The Kentucky legislature calls for the Governor to expell all Confederate troops from the state. Confederate General Robert E. Lee commences his five-pronged attack on Union forces in western Virginia at Cheat Mountain. Rainy weather slows Confederate troop movement, preventing Lee's surprise attack, and enabling the Union to hold their position. The Union victory at Cheat Mountain secures the region of western Virginia for the Union.
12 September 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln dispatches Judge Joseph Holt to St. Louis Missouri with instructions to urge moderation and modification of Fremont's emancipation proclamation. The Union begins arresting disloyal Maryland legislators who planned to convene in Frederick on September 17th. The prisoners are sent to Fort Warren in Boston Harbor. The 8th Illinois Infantry marches to Paducah to help defend against an expected attack on Union forces there. Confederate Sterling Price begins his assault on Lexington, Missouri by besieging Mulligan's Irish Guard, a 2,800 man force entrenched on the campus of Masonic College. The attack startled Fremont in St. Louis, who decided to respond. Confederate General Simon Bolivar Buckner calls upon Kentuckians to 'defend their homes against the invasion of the North.'
14 September 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
At Pensacola, sailors and marines of the U.S.S. Colorado swarm aboard the privateering schooner Judah from small boats and land at the Pensacola Navy Yard. They burn the schooner and spike the guns at the Navy Yard. U.S.S. Albatross Commander Prentiss captures the Confederate schooner Alabama at the mouth of the Potomac. Fremont organizes 38,000 troops to relieve Mulligan at Lexington, Missouri. Confederate President Jefferson Davis receives a complaint from General Joseph E. Johnston about the ranking of Confederate generals. Johnston's hurt pride will cause friction between him and Davis during the War.
15 September 1861 (Sunday)
Fremont orders the arrest of politician Frank Blair and continues his preparations to relieve Mulligan's Guard at Lexington. Lincoln meets with his cabinet in Washington to discuss. Fremont's dismissal. Lincoln comes under attack for the arrest of the Maryland lawmakers, but ignores the charges. Lee closes his campaign in western Virginia. Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnston assumes direct command from General Leonidas Polk in the west.
16 September 1861 (Monday)
On the Cumberland River in Kentucky, the U.S.S. Conestoga takes two Confederate vessels. Confederate forces evacuate Ship Island, Mississippi, leaving the Island open to occupation by Union troops. Kentuckian William Nelson who was instrumental in providing guns to Unionists in Kentucky, is promoted to Brigadier General. Union troops move toward Columbus, Kentucky from Paducah.
17 September 1861 (Tuesday)
The Union Navy destroys the fort defending the inlet at Ocracoke, North Carolina, closing another port for blockade runners. Grant's campaign to hold Paducah, Kentucky is successful. The Union takes possession of Ship Island, Mississippi, with the landing party from the U.S.S. Massachusetts. The Island will become an important staging and refueling site for the blockading squadrons.
18 September 1861 (Wednesday)
Lincoln and his cabinet continue to discuss. the conduct of Fremont. The Louisville, Kentucky Courier is prevented from using the postal service for indicating an alleged hostility to the Union cause and Federal officials arrest several employees when they seize the headquarters.
19 September 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
The Confederates make a strong defense around Cumberland Gap, Bowling Green, and Columbus. General Felix Zollicoffer's Confederate troops drive pro-Union Kentucky troops out of the vicinity of Barboursville, Kentucky.
20 September 1861 (Friday)
After more than a week of siege, Colonel Mulligan's troops surrender to General Sterling Price. Fremont's failure to send reinforcements earns him further criticism.
22 September 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Fremont loses favor with many of his supporters. James H. Lane's Kansas Jayhawkers raid, loot, and burn the town of Osceola, Missouri, a senseless act of terror providing no military advantage to the Union.
23 September 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
General Fremont's sensitivity to criticism provokes him to close the offices of the St. Louis Evening News and arrest the editor who questioned his inaction during the siege of Lexington, Missouri.
25 September 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Forces led by General Lee and General Rosecrans converge on the Kanawha Valley of western Virginia. Union and Confederate troops clash near the Cumberland River in Kentucky, near Lewinsville, Virginia, and at Canada Alamosa, New Mexico Territory. Union Secretary of the Navy Welles issues a historic command, instructing Flag Officer Du Pont, Commander of the South Atlantic Squadron, to employ runaway slaves aboard their ships at a compensation of ten dollars per month and one ration per day.
27 September 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln confers with his cabinet and General McClellan about the Virginia offensive. McClellan's lack of aggressive activity is criticized.
28 September 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Confederates evacuate Munson's Hill, near the present location of Bailey's Crossroads, Virginia.
29 September 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Governor Oliver P. Morton of Indiana complains that Lincoln is not paying enough attention to Kentucky.
30 September 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln continues to wrestle with the problem of Fremont. McClellan's inaction irks Lincoln further and draws criticism from both civilian and military observers. Lincoln is anxious to establish firm control in Kentucky and settle matters with Fremont in Missouri.
1 October 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln appoints General Benjamin Butler to the post of commander of the Department of New England, which recruits and trains soldiers for campaigns. Lincoln's cabinet confers with Generals Scott and McClellan. Lincoln directs his cabinet to prepare for the implementation of an east coast expedition to commence in November, which will eventually be known as the Port Royal, South Carolina operation commanded by General Thomas S. Sherman. Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Generals Johnston, Beauregard, and Smith meet at Centreville, Virginia to discuss the possibility of a Southern offensive in Virginia. They conclude, based on lack of supplies and men, that an offensive would fail and decide to wait for spring and watch for developments on all fronts. Confederates sailing C.S.S. Curlew, Raleigh, and Junaluska, led by Flag Officer William F. Lynch, seize the Union supply steamer Fanny at Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. In addition to military supplies, the Confederates capture 31 Union soldiers.
2 October 1861 (Wednesday)
Cavalry skirmish briefly at Springfield Station, Virginia, 12 miles south of Washington. Governor A.B. Moore of Alabama issues a proclamation against tradesmen and government suppliers overcharging for services and materials. In Richmond, Confederates prepare a list of enemy aliens for publication in local newspapers. Union forces defeat the Confederates at Chapmansville, Virginia. Union troops disrupt a Confederate camp in Charleston, Missouri, where clashes between pro-Union and secession groups have occurred for several days.
3 October 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Louisiana Governor Thomas O. Moore bans the sale of cotton to European nations in order to pressure them to recognize the Confederacy. Union troops are victorious at Greenbriar, Virginia, and seize cattle and horses. Union troops coming from Alexandria, Virginia occupy the area of Pohick Church, Virginia. Cavalry continue to skirmish around Springfield Station, Virginia.
4 October 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln watches a balloon ascent by Thaddeus Lowe in Washington and meets with officials from Fremont's Department of the West. The Confederate government signs agreements with the Shawnee and Seneca Indians. The U.S.S. South Carolina captures 4,000 to 5,000 stands of arms when it takes the Confederate schooners Ezilda and Joseph H. Toone near South Pass of the Mississippi River, south of New Orleans. John Ericsson of New York submits a contract, which Lincoln's cabinet approves, to built ironclad warships for the Union Navy. The vessels will include the Monitor, which takes part in the first naval battle involving ironclads.
5 October 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Union troops in California travel to Oak Grove and Temecula Ranch to root out alleged pro-Confederates. The London Times shows sympathy with the Union, while the London Post publishes an editorial in favor of the Confederacy.
6 October 1861 (Sunday)
The pony express is officially discontinued after only 18 months of courageous service.
7 October 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Fremont leaves St. Louis for Springfield to command the chase after Missouri Militia commander Sterling Price, who is withdrawing toward Lexington, Missouri. After Lincoln confers with his cabinet in Washington on military matters, Secretary of War Simon Cameron leaves for an 'inspection' trip of the western region, carrying a letter from Lincoln to Brigadier General Samuel R. Curtis, asking whether Curtis thinks Fremont should be relieved.
8 October 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Commander of the Union Department of the Cumberland, Brigadier General Robert Anderson, suffers a breakdown and is replaced at Louisville, Kentucky by his second-in-command, Brigadier General William T. Sherman.
9 October 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
One thousand Confederate troops, under General Richard Heron Anderson, land and assault Union batteries at Santa Rosa Island, in Pensacola Bay, Florida. Union reinforcements from Fort Pickens force the Confederates to withdraw.
10 October 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
In a letter to General G. W. Smith, President Jefferson Davis expresses his concerns about troop organization, railroad transportation in the South, and the use of blacks as laborers for the Confederate army.
12 October 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Clashes take place near Clintonville and Pomme de Terre, Missouri, and Southern Raiders led by Virginian Jeff Thompson push into the Ironton area from Stoddard County. The Confederate ironclad Manassas confronts the U.S.S. Richmond and U.S.S. Vincennes, which are run aground, but manage to escape. At Carondelet, Missouri, the first Union ironclad is launched. John Slidell, Confederate commissioner to France, and James Mason, commissioner to Britain, slip past the Union blockade of Charleston, South Carolina on the Theodora.
14 October 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln orders General Winfield Scott to suspend the writ of habeus corpus from Maine to the Federal capital. Jeff Thompson of the Missouri Militia decides to rid southeastern Missouri of Federal 'invaders.' Citizens at Chincoteaque Inlet, Virginia take an oath of allegiance to the Union government and present a petition stating their 'abhorrence of the secession heresy.'
15 October 1861 (Tuesday)
Jeff Thompson's Southern Raiders strike a party of Union soldiers near Potosi, Missouri, capture 50, and burn the Big River Bridge. In an effort to catch the vessel that supposedly carries the Confederate commissioners to Europe, Slidell and Mason, three Union boats leave New York searching for the Nashville. However, Slidell and Mason are proceeding to Cuba on the Theodora.
16 October 1861 (Wednesday)
Jefferson Davis is besieged with requests from soldiers to return home and aid their state militia. Davis denies these requests as a matter of principle and public interest. Federals and Confederates clash near Harper's Ferry, Virginia. Union forces take over Lexington, Missouri, though the Confederates have already evacuated.
18 October 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
President Lincoln meets with his cabinet to discuss the 'voluntary' retirement of General Winfield Scott. General McClellan is among those who would like to see Scott retire. Lincoln is asked to settle a disagreement between McClellan and Sherman. Sherman is planning a coastal expedition to the South, but McClellan is unwilling to furnish Sherman with the number of troops necessary for the operation. Union forces make a gunboat expedition down the Mississippi. Minor fighting breaks out near Rockcastle Hills in Kentucky. Jeff Thompson's Southern raiders clash with Union troops from Cape Girardeau as action and unrest continue in the Ironton area.
20 October 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
General McClellan orders General Charles Stone to engage in a 'slight demonstration' in order to provoke the Confederates at Leesburg. Stone complies but withdraws after no conclusive engagement takes place. Union forces engage in reconnaisance at Hunter's Mill and Thorton Station in northern Virginia. An unidentified lady visits the Confederate War Office in Richmond, leaving a 'programme of the enemy's contemplated movements.' The lady had recently attended a dinner party with Union General John A. Dix, at which deployment strategy was discussed. The movements include Bank's advance on Manassas after crossing the Potomac near Leesburg, the expedition of General Burnside into North Carolina, and the expedition of General Butler into Louisiana.
21 October 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
On orders from General McClellan in Washington, General Charles Stone pushes toward Leesburg, Virginia, assisted by Colonel Edward Baker. Stone ferries his troops across the river in inadequate boats, and battle with the Confederates ensues. During the disorderly Union retreat at Ball's Bluff, Colonel Baker is killed. Of the 921 Union casualties, 714 were missing and probably drowned during the retreat. The press attacks General Stone for the costly defeat and martyrs Colonel Baker, yet directs little criticism toward General McClellan. Confederate General Nathan Evans is widely acclaimed as the hero of the Battle of Leesburg, or Ball's Bluff, Virginia.
22 October 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
The Confederates now control all the strategic points on the Potomac River south of Alexandria. Lincoln and his cabinet confer about General Fremont's situation in Missouri and discuss the defeat at Ball's Bluff.
23 October 1861 (Wednesday)
In Washington, the writ of habeus corpus is suspended in the District of Columbia for all military related cases. Skirmishes occur in Kentucky near West Liberty and Hodgenville. General Sherman is concerned that the Confederates might advance deeper into Kentucky. The officers and men of the Confederate privateer Savannah go on trial in New York for piracy.
24 October 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln decides to terminate General Fremont's command in the Western Department. He sends orders via General S. R. Curtis that relieve Fremont of command and give control of the troops to General David Hunter. Lincoln advises Curtis to withhold delivery of these orders if Fremont is about to engage in combat. Lincoln attends the funeral of Colonel and Senator Edward Baker, his personal friend, who was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia. Western Union announces that the transcontinental telegraph is complete. The people of western Virginia vote overwhelmingly to form a new state.
25 October 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
General Fremont, anxious to delay his removal from command, commences an expedition to rout Confederates led by Sterling Price. Fremont's forces occupy Springfield, far from Price's location near Lexington. At Greenpoint, Long Island, the keel of the ironclad U.S.S. Monitor is laid. The Monitor will later earn a role in naval history during its battle with the Confederate ironclad Merrimack on March 9, 1862.
26 October 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Minor skirmishes occur at South Branch Bridge in western Virginia. Union forces at Romney, in the northern part of western Virginia, clear out Confederate forces with few casualties.
27 October 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Fremont continues his pursuit of Price, who he erroneously believes to be advancing toward Springfield. Price is actually in full retreat in the opposite direction. In the Atlantic, the C.S.S. Sumter, scourge of Union shipping, captures and burns the schooner Trowbridge after removing its provisions. Union Lieutenant Alfred Hopkins leads a boat expedition to surprise and burn three Confederate ships at Chincoteaque Inlet, Virginia.
28 October 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
General Albert Sydney Johnston assumes command of the Army of Central Kentucky at Bowling Green, where General Simon Bolivar Buckner is holding the fort.
29 October 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Union General Thomas W. Sherman and Flag Officer Samuel Dupont begin an expedition from Hampton Roads, Virginia to the Confederate coast. The fleet includes 77 vessels with 12,000 troops. They plan to take Port Royal, heavily fortified by the Confederacy, for a refuelling and servicing station for the blockading squadrons. The fleet is impeded by gales off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
30 October 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
The Confederates sink stone-filled boats downriver from Fort Donelson to discourage Union gunboats from coming upriver, but their efforts are wasted when the river rises.
31 October 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
General Winfield Scott convinces Lincoln to grant his retirement request and General McClellan succeeds him. Confederate soldiers unsuccessfully attack a Union encampment in Morgantown, Kentucky.
1 November 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
General Scott formally relinquishes his post as General in Chief of the United States Army, allowing 34-year-old General George Brinton McClellan to assume control. President Lincoln and his cabinet bid General Scott farewell. Confederates under General John B. Floyd attack General Rosecrans' troops in western Virginia near Gauley Bridge and Cotton Hill. Floyd continues the attack for three days, but ultimately withdraws. Without Lincoln's permission, General Fremont agrees to exchange prisoners with General Price. Fremont refuses to see any military personel because he knows Lincoln has sent the letter ordering his removal. General Curtis sends a captain disguised as a farmer with a grievance to deliver the order. When he reads the order, Fremont imprisons the captain to keep things quiet. In the Atlantic, the storm off Cape Hatteras leaves the Union Port Royal expedition scattered. During the storm, the U.S.S. transport Governor sinks, but the crew is rescued by the U.S.S. Sabine.
2 November 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
The British steamer Bermuda, a blockade runner carrying 2,000 bales of cotton, escapes from Charleston, South Carolina. General John C. Fremont finally relinquishes command, sending a farewell address to his men and returning to his wife in St. Louis. Jeff Thompson's Southern Raiders are active in Missouri. The Union fleet approaches South Carolina and Port Royal. The governor of Tenessee requests that citizens furnish Confederate soldiers with rifles and shotguns due to a shortage of weapons.
3 November 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Major General David Hunter relieves Fremont of command. At Fairfax Court House, Virginia, General Thomas J. 'Stonewall' Jackson prepares to leave for Winchester to begin his Valley Campaign.
4 November 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
General 'Stonewall' Jackson leaves Fairfax Court House to begin his Valley Campaign. Escorted by the U.S.S. Ottawa and Seneca, the Union Coast Survey Ship Vixen, commanded by Commodore Tattnall, enters the Sound at Port Royal to take depth readings in the channel, and comes under fire from Confederate forces. President Davis and General Beauregard continue to disagree over what should have been done at Manassas, or Bull Run, Virginia. Aware of rumors of his administration's ineptitude, Davis contacts Generals Lee and Cooper to gain their support for his position.
6 November 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The South holds elections, which prove that Davis is still popular and respected. Davis is elected to a six year term of office as president of the Confederacy and is again joined by Alexander Stephens as vice-president.
7 November 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
A Union force of 3,500 soldiers under General Ulysses S. Grant leaves Cairo, Illinois for a point near Columbus, Kentucky on the Mississippi River. They plan to disembark and cross the river at Belmont, Missouri, opposite the Confederate defenses at Columbus. Confederate General Leonidas Polk and his troops quickly cross the river and force the Union soldiers to sail northward. Union forces also engage in a reconnaisance operation from Paducah to Columbus, Kentucky. At Port Royal, the Union squadron under Flag Officer S. F. Du Pont evades the relatively weak Confederate defenses as it sails into Port Royal Sound, between Forts Beauregard and Walker. Confederate Commander Tattnall uses his small flotilla to rescue troops from the forts, but can do little else. The Confederate forces retreat from the forts to establish positions inland. Casualties are light on both sides, and the Port Royal expedition is considered a Union success. The Union now occupies Hilton Head and Port Royal, a strategic position between Savannah and Charleston, where they can refuel blockade ships.
8 November 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Union ship San Jacinto captures Confederate commissioners to Europe, Mason and Slidell, and their aides, as they leave Cuba aboard the British mail ship Trent. The Trent is allowed to continue to England, but the incident creates the possibility of armed conflict between the United States and Britain. Near Galveston, Lieutenant James E. Jouett of the U.S.S. Santee captures and burns the schooner Royal Yacht. General Lee arrives in Savannah to take command of a large territory that was blockaded and poorly manned. News of the capture of Port Royal sends many residents of Savannah inland. At Hilton Head, Union troops push out from the beachhead into the area around Beaufort. The pro-Union population of east Tennessee, tired of waiting for Federal help, begins their own campaign against the Confederacy by burning bridges and harassing the local Confederate commander, Brigadier General Felix Zollicoffer, who calls for reinforcements. The Stonewall Brigade leaves Fairfax Court House for Manassas to board a train for Winchester.
9 November 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Union force in South Carolina captures Beaufort without a fight and blockades the Broad River, cutting off communication between Savannah and Charleston. Union Major General Henry W. Halleck is assigned command of the Department of the Missouri, encompassing Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois, and Kentucky west of the Cumberland River, including Grant's command. General William T. Sherman is replaced by General Don Carlos Buell.
10 November 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Union troops expand their hold on Port Royal, South Carolina by carrying out an expedition against Braddock's Point. The last train carrying the Stonewall Brigade to Winchester leaves Manassas, arriving at Strasburg at sundown.
11 November 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Near Fort Monroe, Professor Thaddeus Lowe makes history by raising a balloon from the deck of the specially fitted balloon boat G.W. Parke Custis. The Stonewall Brigade marches from Strasburg to Winchester, Virginia. An accidental gun explosion in Columbus, Kentucky kills seven Confederate soldiers and wounds General Leonidas Polk, though not seriously. A torchlight parade in Washington celebrates the new General in Chief of the United States Army, General George Brinton McClellan.
13 November 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins Chronology]
President Lincoln calls on General McClellan at his home, but McClellan retires without acknowledging the President. From this moment on, Lincoln summons McClellan to the White House when he wants to see him.
15 November 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
The Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) organizes the U.S. Christian Commission to serve the Federal troops by providing nurses for war hospitals, supplies and other services. Captain John Wilkes of the San Jacinto arrives at Hampton Roads, Virginia for a fuel stop and informs port authorities of his prisoners, Confederate commissioners to Europe, Mason and Slidell. He refuels and continues northward to deliver Mason and Slidell to the Federal prison at Fort Warren in Boston Harbor.
16 November 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Postmaster General Montgomery Blair and Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts speak out against Wilkes' capture of James Mason and John Slidell. Both urge the surrender of the two Confederate commissioners. Confederate Secretary of the Navy Mallory advertises for bids to build four ironclad ships for the Confederate Navy.
18 November 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Commodore David Dixon Porter is charged with obtaining and provisioning gunboats for a Union expedition to New Orleans. At Hatteras, North Carolina, a convention of pro-Union delegates from forty-two counties meets and repudiates the May 20, 1861 order concerning North Carolina's secession from the Union. The convention appoints Marble Nash Taylor as provisional governor. In Kentucky, Confederate soldiers convene at Russelville and adopt a secession ordinance resulting in two state governments. The Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America convenes in its fifth session at Richmond, Virginia.
20 November 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
General McClellan reviews 60,000 troops in Washington. Brief confrontations occur at Butler, Missouri. In California, Union troops begin pursuit of the Showalter Party. Confederate General John B. Floyd pulls his troops out of an encampment near Gauley River, Virginia, losing tents and equipment during the hasty withdrawl.
21 November 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
President Davis names Judah P. Benjamin Confederate Secretary of War. Davis assigns the attorney general's position to Thomas Bragg. Davis appoints General Lloyd Tilighman commander of Forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, strategically important to the Confederate defense against invasion. Confederate General Albert S. Johnston calls for 10,000 volunteers and militia from Tennessee to help defend the area from the Union advance.
22 November 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
An inconclusive engagement begins between Union batteries at Fort Pickens, Florida and Confederates at Forts McRee and Barrancas, and the Pensacola Naval Yard. Union ground forces are aided by the U.S.S. Niagara and the U.S.S. Richmond.
24 November 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln discusses the Trent affair with his cabinet. Captured Confederate commissioners to Europe, Slidell and Mason, arrive at Fort Warren in Boston, Massachusetts on the U.S.S. San Jacinto. Union troops led by Commander J. Rodgers obtain a foothold on Tybee Island, Georgia, thereby endangering Fort Pulaski and Savannah. Confederate cavalry genious Nathan Bedford Forrest begins his career with an expedition into Kentucky from Tennessee.
25 November 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Confederate Naval Department receives the first load of armor plate to convert the former U.S.S. Merrimack to an ironclad vessel, the C.S.S. Virginia. The C.S.S. Sumter captures a Union ship, while Union vessels capture a blockade-runner off the coast of South Carolina.
26 November 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The convention at Wheeling in western Virginia adopts a new constitution calling for the formation of West Virginia after secession from the rest of the state. Captain Wilkes, who captured Confederate commissioners to Europe, Slidell and Mason, is honored at a special banquet in Boston. The C.S.S. Sumter seizes another Union vessel in the Atlantic. At Savannah, Georgia, the Confederates fail to engage Union ships from Fort Pulaski.
27 November 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The British registry ship Trent arrives in England with news of the boarding at Cuba and the removal of Slidell, Mason, and their aides. Britain reacts by sending 8,000 troops to Canada. A Union expeditionary force leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia for Ship Island, Mississippi, to set up a base of operations against New Orleans and the Gulf Coast area.
28 November 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Provisional Congress at Richmond admits Missouri to the Confederacy. Lincoln authorizes Union officials at Port Royal, South Carolina to seize agricultural products and slaves, who will work for the Federal defense of the area.
29 November 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Planters along the coasts of Georgia and South Carolina burn cotton to prevent it from falling into Federal hands. The future commander of the U.S.S. Monitor, Lieutenant John Lorimer Worden, arrives in Washington, following seven months as a prisoner of war in Montgomery, Alabama.
30 November 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lord Russell, British Foreign Secretary, informs Lord Lyons, Minister to the United States, that because the 'Trent affair' constitutes aggression against England, Slidell and Mason must be released to Britain's jurisdiction and an apology must be given for their seizure. If no action is taken within seven days, Lyons is to depart Washington and return to England with his personnel. The British Navy is placed on alert but instructed to avoid hostilities.
1 December 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln becomes impatient with General McClellan's lack of agression. The Union gunboat Penguin prevents the Confederate blockade-runner Albion from carrying supplies to the Confederate troops and captures the ship. The Union blockade tightens off the coast of Georgia when the U.S.S. Seminole, commanded by John S. Missroon, captures the sloop Lida.
2 December 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Congress meets for its regular session, and many criticize Lincoln and his military plans. Major General Henry Halleck in the Department of Missouri is given permission to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in areas he deems necessary. At Newport News, Virginia, four Union ships battle the Confederate vessel Patrick Henry, which sustains much damage. Lieutenant Robert D. Minor reports the establishment of a laboratory in New Orleans to supply vessels leaving the port. Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles sends his annual report to the President, painting a bright picture.
3 December 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln's State of the Union address to Congress argues that 'an indispensable means must be employed' to preserve the Union. The Union ship Constitution carries the first of General Bulter's troops onto Ship Island in Mississippi. These troops are made up of the 26th Massachusetts Regiment and the 9th Connecticut Regiment.
4 December 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Senator John Breckenridge (Kentucky) is expelled from office. He had joined the Confederate Army in November after failing to achieve a peaceful solution between the Union and the Confederacy and was appointed Commander of the 1st Kentucky Brigade. General Henry Halleck authorizes the arrest of anyone who assists the pro-secessionist movement in St. Louis, Missouri. There are minor skirmishes at Burke Station, Virginia. In the Mississippi Sound, the Confederate steamers Florida and Pamlico attack the U.S.S. Montgomery. Great Britain prohibits exports to the United States, including armaments.
5 December 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Federal Congress considers bills to abolish slavery, particularly in Confederate territory. The Union secretary of war reports that the regular army has over 20,000 soldiers, and volunteers surpass 640,000. Naval Secretary Gideon Welles reports that the Federal navy has 22,000 sailors and marines. Major General William J. Hardee assumes command of the Confederate Central Army of Kentucky. The Federal Navy had collected wooden ships of little service and filled them with stones to be used to block the rivers and ports in the Savannah area. Flag Officer Du Pont instead uses the stoneboats as a show of force, enabling him to take Wassaw Sound with ease.
6 December 1861 (Friday)
Union Brigadier General George G. Meade leads a foraging expedition into northern Virginia in the area of Dranesville.
7 December 1861 (Saturday)
Union and Confederate soldiers clash at Potomac River Dam Number Five. Confederate troops take Glasgow, Missouri. Agitation over the Trent affair is compounded when the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba, commanded by Daniel Ridgely, stops the English ship Eugenia Smith at the mouth of the Rio Grande River. Ridgely seizes J. W. Zacharie of New Orleans, a known Confederate purchasing agent.
8 December 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
In the Atlantic, the C.S.S. Sumter seizes the whaler Eben Dodge.
9 December 1861 (Monday)
Garret Davis is elected to replace Kentucky Senator John Breckenridge. Criticism and debate surrounding military defeats compels the United States Senate to call for a Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, the first 'oversight' committee. In the west, brief skirmishing occurs at Union Mills. In the Indian Territory, pro-South forces, consisting largely of Indians, push pro-Union Creeks out of the vicinity of Chusto-Talasah, later to be known as Tulsa, Oklahoma. The shortage of provisions and the tenacity of the Creeks lead the Confederates to withdraw.
10 December 1861 (Tuesday)
In Richmond, the state of Kentucky is admitted to the Confederacy, making it the 13th and final state. Union Lieutenant James W.A. Nicholson takes the U.S.S. Isaac Smith up the Ashepoo River in South Carolina. He lands part of his crew on abandoned Otter Island and takes possession of a Confederate Fort. The Federal House of Representatives approves the proposal for a Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War.
11 December 1861 (Wednesday)[View Jenkins Chronology]
Half of Charleston, South Carolina is destroyed by fire, including much of the business district.
13 December 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Union troops under General R. H. Milroy attack Confederate Camp Allegheny, at Buffalo Mountain, in western Virginia. Heavy Union casualties force them to retreat to Cheat Mountain. The Confederates suffer equally heavy casualties and retreat to Staunton, Virginia, in the Shenandoah Valley.
14 December 1861 (Saturday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Britain mourns the sudden death of His Royal Highness Prince Albert, husband and consort of Queen Victoria. An advocate of the Union, Prince Albert had recommended a moderate course of action in response to the Trent affair, but there is still apprehension of war between the United States and Britain.
16 December 1861 (Monday)[View Jenkins Chronology]
Clement Vallandigham of Ohio introduces a resolution in the U.S. House of Representatives commending Captain Wilkes on his conduct during the Trent affair. The somewhat embarrassing resolution is sent to committee for study. The Stonewall Brigade leaves camp at Winchester, Virginia and marches 15 miles to Martinsburg and another 13 miles to the bluffs overlooking Dam Number Five of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, parallel to the Potomac.
17 December 1861 (Tuesday)
In reponse to the furor caused by the Trent affair, the London Times issues a derogatory statement about 'Yankees.' Thirty members of the Stonewall Brigade begin to dismantle Dam Number Five of the C&O Canal under cover of darkness. Union Flag Officer Du Pont orders that seven of the wooden 'stone fleet' vessels be sunk at the entrance to Savannah Harbor. Fighting breaks out at Chilholm Island and Rockville, South Carolina. Confederates leave the vicinity of Rockville due to the Union threat at Hilton Head, South Carolina. In Kentucky, Confederate and Union soldiers engage in battle on the Green River.
18 December 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Lincoln and his cabinet discuss the Trent affair. Lord Lyons, the British minister in Washington, receives his orders from London to seek the immediate release of Confederate commissioners Slidell and Mason. Lincoln and McClellan discuss Union military strategy. At dawn, Union soldiers discover Stonewall's Brigade working on the destruction of Dam Number Five of the C&O Canal and begin firing on them.
19 December 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
United States Secretary of State Seward and British Minister Lord Lyons exchange information and terms concerning the Trent affair. The United States has seven days to respond to the British demand for release of Confederate commissioners Slidell and Mason and apologize for the actions of Captain Wilkes. Failure to act will result in war with Britain.
20 December 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Union Flag Officer Du Pont orders Captain C. H. Davis to sink 16 of the 'stone fleet' vessels at the mouth of the Charleston Harbor to restrict movement. Troop transports with 8,000 British soldiers sail for Canada from England to prepare for war with the United States in the event that the United States fails to comply with British demands concerning the Trent affair. 'Stonewall' Jackson moves troops toward Dam Number 4 on the C&O Canal to distract Union attention from Dam Number 5. The Stonewall Brigade completes the destruction of Dam Number 5 unhindered.
21 December 1861 (Saturday)
The Stonewall Brigade returns to Winchester, suffering from the bitter cold. British Minister Lord Lyons in Washington advises Lord Russell that if the United States does not comply with their demands concerning the Trent affair, Britain had better respond forcefully. Southern newspapers explode with the possibility of war between England and the United States. After much failure in western Virginia, Confederate Brigadier General Henry A. Wise is relieved of his command and sent to North Carolina.
23 December 1861 (Monday)
Lord Lyons continues to press for the release of Slidell and Mason. Lincoln meets with his cabinet to discuss the Trent affair further, where Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner advises Lincoln to release the Confederate commissioners.
24 December 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
U.S.S. Gem of the Sea, commanded by Lieutenant Irvin B. Baxter, captures and destroys British blockade runner Prince of Wales off Georgetown, South Carolina. The United States Congress passes duties on luxury items including coffee, tea, sugar, and molasses. The Union War Department suspends enlistment of cavalry soldiers. Lincoln prepares for a meeting with his cabinet to resolve the Trent affair.
25 December 1861 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln focuses on the Trent affair, but he and his wife still take time to entertain guests at Christmas dinner. Confederate and Union soldiers continue to clash at Cherry in western Virginia and near Fort Frederick, Maryland. The U.S.S. Fernandina, commanded by Lieutenant George W. Browne, captures the schooner William H. Northrup off Cape Fear, North Carolina.
26 December 1861 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln agrees to surrender Confederate commissioners James Mason and John Slidell to the keeping of Great Britain. He and his cabinet acknowledge that the seizure of the diplomats was illegal and describes the action as a misunderstanding on the part of Captain Charles Wilkes. Lord Lyons receives the statement and Secretary of State Seward orders Slidell and Mason released from Fort Warren in Massachusetts. In Missouri, General Henry Halleck orders martial law for St. Louis and all railroads in Missouri. In Indian Territory, pro-Union Creeks clash with Confederates at Christenahlah. The Creeks retreat to Kansas after sustaining many casualties. At the mouth of the Savannah River, Confederate vessels attack Union blockaders with only temporary success.
27 December 1861 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Fighting breaks out at Hallsville, Missouri. Union troops under General Benjamin Prentiss attack and disperse 900 Confederates stationed at Mount Sion, Missouri.
29 December 1861 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
In Missouri, Jeff Thompson's Southern Raiders fight pro-Union forces in Commerce and attack the steamer City of Alton.
30 December 1861 (Monday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
British minister to the United States Lord Lyons takes custody of Confederate commissioners James Mason and John Slidell. United States banks decide they will no longer redeem paper money for metal currency. This policy will last until 1879.
31 December 1861 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln asks Generals Buell and Halleck to cooperate with each other in the west. U.S.S. Augusta Commander Parrot captures the schooner Island Belle as it attempts to run the blockade near Bull's Bay, South Carolina. Near Wilmington, North Carolina, a boat party from the U.S.S. Mount Vernon, under Acting Masters A. Allen and H.L. Sturges, destroy a Confederate gunboat. Union Commander C.R.P. Rodgers leads a naval squadron against Confederate positions at Port Royal Ferry and on the Coosaw River. Rodgers sends Army signal officers to accompany troops on shore and relay firing adjustments to the fleet. The action successfully disrupts the Confederate effort to erect shore batteries and build troop strength.
1 January 1862 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Union and Confederate troops fight at Forts Pickens and Barrancas in Florida. Union troops overtake the Port Royal area in South Carolina, a strategic coastal location. In the west, troops skirmish at Dayton, Missouri. Union General Halleck receives orders from Washington to advance his troops, along with General Buell's troops, towards Nashville, Tennessee, and Columbus, Kentucky. Intending to sever Union communications with the west, Confederate General Jackson marches toward Romney, Virginia to try and capture the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and parts of the Cheaspeake and Ohio Canal. Having been released into British custody, James Mason and John Slidell, the two Confederate commissioners that were taken prisoner on the Trent, sail for England to attempt to gain British recognition of the Confederacy. This event draws a conclusion to the Trent affair.
2 January 1862 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
The Union finally acquires machine guns, and Colonel John W. Geary's 28th Pennsylvania Infantry is the first unit to receive the guns for battle. The Confederate Stonewall Brigade reaches Unger's Store, travelling over rough mountain roads in bad weather.
3 January 1862 (Friday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
The Confederate Stonewall Brigade reaches Bath and tries, unsuccessfully, to surprise Union troops. Confederate President Jefferson Davis writes a letter to the governor of Mississippi expressing his concern over the presence of Union troops on Ship Island. Davis warns that the Union is planning an offensive that will likely be aimed at New Orleans, Louisiana or Mobile, Alabama. Confederate troops at Big Bethel, Virginia evacuate following a skirmish.
5 January 1862 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Brigadier General Ambrose E. Burnside receives orders to head his ships towards Hatteras Inlet to help with the Roanoke Island expedition. Confederate General Jackson captures the city of Bath and chases the Federals to the Potomac. Jackson allows women and children to leave Hancock, in western Virginia, and then shells the town because of its refusal to surrender. Jackson's troops burn the railroad bridge over the Great Cacapon River in western Virginia and damage a dam on the C&O Canal along the Potomac.
6 January 1862 (Monday)
Union Flag Officer Foote receives from the Navy only half of the required men needed to man the gunboats. The Navy maintains the Army will have to supply the other half. In a letter, General Grant suggests to General Halleck that men incarcerated in the guardhouse should be supplied to the Navy for service on the gunboats. The Stonewall Brigade retreats from the battle near Hancock, Virgina, and abandons plans to cross the Potomac. Though pressured by senators to remove General McClellan for not being aggressive, Lincoln refuses. Lincoln does pressure General Buell to continue to advance toward east Tennessee.
7 January 1862 (Tuesday)
Confederate troops retreat farther from the Potomac after a fight at Blue's Gap, Virginia. Traveling toward Romney, Virginia, Jackson's troops are surprised by Union forces at Hanging Rock Pass, but they eventually reach Unger's Store. The U.S.S. Conestoga, under Lieutenant S. L. Phelps, travels up the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in Kentucky, gathering valuable information about the defenses of Forts Donelson and Henry.
8 January 1862 (Wednesday)
Confederate President Davis asks the governors of the Confederate states for more support and troops. 'Stonewall' Jackson's troops rest at Unger's Store for the day. Many men are absent with illness. Jackson has water heated so the men can bathe.
9 January 1862 (Thursday)
Lincoln complains to McClellan about inactivity, particularly regarding Generals Buell and Halleck in the west. Union General Grant prepares for a reconnaisance expedition to Columbus, Kentucky on the Mississippi River. Union Flag Officer Farragut, in Philadelphia, is ordered to command the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron. Farrgut's primary mission is to gain access to the Mississippi and capture New Orleans. The United States Congress considers solutions to the problem of slavery including possible colonization of former slaves elsewhere in the world, reimbursing owners for the loss of their slaves, and emancipation of the slaves.
10 January 1862 (Friday)
Near Prestonburg, Kentucky at the forks of Middle Creek, Union troops under General Garfield clash inconclusively with Confederate troops led by Humphrey Marshall. Though both sides retreat, both claim victory. The town of Romney, in western Virginia, evacuates at the news that Confederate General Jackson's troops are approaching. The Confederates will camp at Romney during the cold weather. Charges of corruption in the Union War Department increase, as do feelings that Secretary of War Simon Cameron should resign. Grant marches his troops toward Columbus, Kentucky in cold, wet weather.
11 January 1862 (Saturday)
Lincoln accepts Simon Cameron's resignation as Secretary of War and appoints him minister to Russia.
12 January 1862 (Sunday)
The Union Navy at Hampton Roads, Virginia sails for the coast of North Carolina with 15,000 troops commanded by General Ambrose Burnside. The naval squadron, commanded by Commodore Louis Goldsborough, consists of about 100 ships. They plan to conduct an amphibious operation against Roanoke Island, between Pamlico and Albemarle sounds. The capture of Roanoke Island would increase the strength of the Union blockade and give the Union control of rivers flowing out of North Carolina.
13 January 1862 (Monday)
Lincoln chooses Edwin Stanton to replace Simon Cameron as Secretary of War. Lincoln writes to Generals Halleck and Buell, urging them to attack the Confederacy in different places at the same time. 'Stonewall' Jackson resumes his march from Unger's Store toward Romney. Naval Lieutenant Worden receives orders to take command of the U.S.S. Monitor, which is being built in New York. Union Flag Officer Foote orders gunboats up the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to demonstrate Union power. The Union fleet arrives off Hatteras Inlet and crosses the bar into Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Union Brigadier General Burnside assumes command of the Department of North Carolina.
14 January 1862 (Tuesday)
'Stonewall' Jackson's men continue toward Romney in the rain and sleet.
15 January 1862 (Wednesday)
The Senate confirms Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War. Confederate General Jackson's troops reach Romney, in western Virginia. General Grant moves his infantry into the Kentucky-Tennessee area, while gunboats on the Tennessee River approach Fort Henry. Grant's force gathers information about enemy positions.
16 January 1862 (Thursday)
General Felix Coffer positions his Confederate troops north of the Cumberland River, contrary to the orders of General Crittendon. Union troops approach Coffer's encampment. At Cedar Keys, Florida, the U.S.S. Hatteras destroys a Confederate battery, seven small ships prepared to run the blockade, the railroad depot, a wharf, and the telegraph office. In the west, Union Flag Officer Foote reports that seven of the gunboats under construction are ready for service.
17 January 1862 (Friday)
Union forces under General Charles Smith begin their attack on Fort Henry on the Tennessee River.
18 January 1862 (Saturday)
Union troops close in on Confederates at Mill Springs and Somerset on the Cumberland River in Kentucky. Confederate General Crittendon's troops are left unprotected with their back to the river because General Zollicoffer positioned his troops north of the Cumberland River. Former President of the United States John Tyler is buried at Hollywood Cemetary in Richmond, Virginia, near the James River. Confederate General Jackson orders his troops into winter quarters at Bath (Berkeley Springs) and Moorefield.
19 January 1862 (Sunday)
Battle at Mill Springs, Kentucky results in great losses for the Confederates, who lose men, equipment, arms, and 1,000 horses. Union General Thomas' men force the Confederates to retreat across the Cumberland River. Confederate General Zollicoffer, who positioned his men carelessly, is killed. The senior General Crittendon takes the blame for losing control over the positioning of his troops. The Confederate retreat creates a gap in their line of defense in the Tennessee-Kentucky region.
20 January 1862 (Monday)
Union forces run the J.W. Wilder ashore, but are prevented from boarding the ship by Confederate troops.
21 January 1862 (Tuesday)
Confederate General Jackson orders the Stonewall Brigade back to Winchester. Union forces under General Clernand return to the Columbus, Kentucky area as a show of strength.
22 January 1862 (Wednesday)
Aboard the U.S.S. Lexington, on the Tennessee River, Lieutenant Shirk and Brigadier General Charles Smith assess the defenses of Fort Henry. In New York, Lieutenant Worden reports good progress on the ironclad U.S.S. Monitor. The Confederates assign General Henry Wise to the command at Roanoke, Virginia in order to deter Union forces under General Burnside from seizing another position in Confederate territory.
23 January 1862 (Thursday)
In St. Louis, Missouri, General Halleck calls for the arrest of pro-Confederates who failed to pay assessments for the aid to pro-Union refugees. 'Stonewall' Jackson arrives in Winchester, where he is reunited with his wife.
24 January 1862 (Friday)
Union forces continue to survey Confederate defenses on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers.
25 January 1862 (Saturday)
The Union continues to move troops across the sandbar at Hatteras Inlet into Pamlico Sound. Operations against Roanoke Island cannot begin until this difficult move is complete.
26 January 1862 (Sunday)
Confederate General Pierre G.T. Beauregard, the hero of Sumter and Manassas, is ordered to Tennessee to be second-in-command to General Albert Sydney Johnston.
27 January 1862 (Monday)
Frustrated by the inactivity of his generals, Lincoln issues General War Order Number One, declaring that on February 22, 1862, all land and sea forces will attack insurgents. Confederate Secretary of War Judah Benjamin orders General Wise to hold Roanoke Island at all costs.
28 January 1862 (Tuesday)
Union Flag Officer Foote tells General Halleck that four gunboats can take Fort Henry. In spite of Foote's recommendation to attack while the river is at flood stage, Halleck fails to act. At Hampton Roads, Virginia, the C.S.S. Virginia menaces the Union blockaders.
29 January 1862 (Wednesday)
Confederates hold a dance at Occoquan, south of Washington, D.C. The party breaks up after a brief skirmish with uninvited Union soldiers. The sandbar at Hatteras Inlet continues to challenge Union forces.
30 January 1862 (Thursday)
The U.S.S. Monitor is launched at Green Point, Long Island. Confederate commissioners James Mason and John Slidell arrive at Southampton, England. Confederate Secretary of War Judah Benjamin directs 'Stonewall' Jackson to move Loring's Brigade from Romney to Winchester, effectively ending one of the toughest campaigns of the war. Major General Henry Halleck orders Grant to advance up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers in Kentucky, warning Grant that the roads are quagmires. Grant will instead move his supplies and men by gunboat.
31 January 1862 (Friday)
Lincoln issues a supplement to his General War Order Number One of January 27, 1862. In his Special War Order Number One, Lincoln directs Major General George B. McClellan to take action against Manassas before February 22nd. McClellan ignores the order.
1 February 1862 (Saturday)
In Cairo, Illinois, Union General Grant prepares to attack Fort Henry on the Tennessee River.
2 February 1862 (Sunday)
The U.S.S. Hartford, commanded by Flag Officer Farragut, leaves Hampton Roads, Virginia enroute to Ship Island, Mississippi to take command of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron and capture New Orleans. On the Tennessee River, in preparation to attack Fort Henry, Union Flag Officer Foote instructs his men not to waste shots by firing randomly.
3 February 1862 (Monday)
Lincoln declines an offer of war elephants from the King of Siam on the grounds that the climate is not right for elephants. The Union decides that captured privateers will be treated as prisoners of war and not as pirates. The Union river fleet departs to attack Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. At Southampton, England, the H.M.S. Shannon protects the C.S.S. Nashville from pursuit by the U.S.S. Tuscarora, because international agreements require a twenty-four hour period between sailings of ships of nations at war with one another.
4 February 1862 (Tuesday)
At Fort Henry on the Tennessee River, Confederate Brigadier General Lloyd Tilghman warns General John B. Floyd that an enemy force, General Grant's infantry, has landed five miles below the fort. While the Union troops land, Flag Officer Foote and General Grant, aboard the U.S.S. Cincinnati, lead the four gunboats up the river to reconnoiter and to fire at Confederate gunners. In Richmond, the Virginia House of Delegates considers enlisting free Negros in the Confederate forces because many terms of enlistment have expired. The Richmond newspaper Examiner asks the citizenry to support the Southern cause by re-enlisting in the army.
5 February 1862 (Wednesday)
The flooding of the lower part of Fort Henry by the Tennessee River sparks low morale among the 3,000 Confederate soldiers commanded by General Tilghman. Union General Charles Smith's troops take over evacuated Fort Heiman near Fort Henry. Queen Victoria lifts all restrictions against shipping gun powder, arms, and ammunition from Britain, which encourages profiteers.
6 February 1862 (Thursday)
Union Flag Officer Foote captures Fort Henry with his gunboat armada and ground troops. Marching in heavy rain, Grant's 15,000 troops on the ground arrive too late to take part in the battle. The Union armada's fire power forces Confederate Brigadier General Tilghman to surrender after he sends most of his men to Fort Donelson. Foote takes his fleet back to Cairo, Illinois for repairs and to prepare for the attack on Fort Donelson. In North Carolina, the Union transports finally finish crossing the sandbar at Roanoke Inlet and prepare to attack Roanoke Island.
7 February 1862 (Friday)
Lincoln's youngest son, Willie, is critically ill with typhoid fever. In western Virginia, the Confederates abandon Romney to the Union troops again. On the Tennessee River, Lieutenant S.L. Phelps, commander of the U.S.S. Conestoga, forces the Confederates to abandon and burn the steamers Samuel Orr, Appleton Belle, and Lynn Boyd to prevent capture by the Union. The Samuel Orr, loaded with torpedos, explodes, causing fragments and ammunition to rain down on the river for half a mile around. Union Brigadier General John A. McClernand renames Fort Henry in honor of Flag Officer Foote. The Governor of Tennessee, Isham G. Harris, advises Confederate Secretary of War Judah Benjamin that the Confederate line of defense in Tennessee has been broken - only Fort Donelson remains. Confederate General Albert S. Johnston orders reinforcements to Fort Donelson from Clarksville, Tennessee and from Russellville, Kentucky. At Bowling Green, Kentucky, Confederate Generals Johnston, Beauregard, and Hardee hold a council of war to discuss the breach in the Confederate line of defense. The Union assault on Roanoke Island begins with gunboats leading heavy bombardment of Fort Barrow at Pork Point.
8 February 1862 (Saturday)
The battle for Roanoke Island continues. Union forces clear obstructions sunk by Confederates and enter Albemarle Sound with gunboats. The Union fleet overwhelms the Confederate gunboats. Confederate Colonel Shaw, in temporary command while General Wise lies ill, attempts to hold their position but finally surrenders. The Confederates lose 30 guns and another strategic position on the Atlantic coast. Thirteen Union gunboats follow retreating Confederates up the Pasquotank River in the direction of Elizabeth City, North Carolina. At Chickasaw, Alabama, Union forces capture two Confederate steamers, Sallie Wood and Muscle. The Confederates burn three other steamers to prevent their capture. The Confederate war council at Bowling Green decides to fall back to Nashville, Tennessee.
9 February 1862 (Sunday)
Confederate Brigadier General Gideon J. Pillow assumes command of Fort Donelson.
10 February 1862 (Monday)
Union Commander Rowan, in the U.S.S. Delaware, chases the Confederate fleet, led by Flag Officer Lynch, up the Pasquotank River. When they reach Elizabeth City, North Carolina, Rowan captures the C.S.S. Ellis and sinks the Seabird. The Confederates burn the C.S.S. Black Warrior, Fanny, and Forrest to prevent capture. At Roanoke, Union General Burnside prepares for further campaigns against the Confederates at New Berne. Union forces destroy the fort and batteries at Cobb's Point. In the west, Union General Halleck sends an urgent message to Flag Officer Foote to provide gunboats for the troops on the Cumberland River for the assault on Fort Donelson. General Grant completes preparations for his assault on Fort Donelson. In the Gulf of Mexico, Union Flag Officer Farragut prepares for his assault on New Orleans. Confederate spies watch his progress. Union forces threaten Confederates occupying St. Simon's and Jekyll Island. General Robert E. Lee gives the commanders on the islands authority to withdraw to save their commands.
11 February 1862 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins Chronology}
The gunboats of Union Flag Officer Foote proceed to assist General Grant in the assault on Fort Donelson. General McClernand approaches Fort Donelson from the opposite direction. Confederate Brigadier General Simon Bolivar Buckner arrives at Fort Donelson. In response to Union activity on the Cumberland River, the Confederates evacuate Bowling Green, Kentucky, leaving Kentucky open to Union invasion. Union forces occupy Edisto Island following the evacuation of Confederate troops.
12 February 1862 (Wednesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Union General Grant surrounds Fort Donelson with 40,000 troops. Confederates at Fort Donelson number only 18,000. Union gunboats move into position for the assault on Fort Donelson. In North Carolina, Union forces take possession of Edenton, near Roanoke.
13 February 1862 (Thursday)
Union forces attack Fort Donelson. Confederate command of Fort Donelson transfers to General Floyd, whose reinforcements prove ultimately useless. Generals Smith and McClernand attack Fort Donelson from opposite ends. The Union also attacks nearby Fort Heiman. Parts of Bowling Green, Kentucky burn as the Confederates evacuate. The West Virginia Constitutional Convention at Wheeling adopts a provision that 'no slave or free person of color should come into the state for permanent residence.'
14 February 1862 (Friday)
An experimental ironclad, the U.S.S. Galena, is launched at Mystic Harbor, Connecticut. In the west, General Grant and Flag Officer Foote continue to assault Fort Donelson. Foote orders his gunboats into battle in spite of the danger posed by the higher fort guns. Foote's flagship, the U.S.S. St. Louis is hit 59 times, loses her steerage and starts to drift downriver. Foote's injury during the battle will later force him to give up command of the flotilla. The gunboat attack is broken off for now. Disappointed that the gunboats did not bring easy victory, Grant gathers his forces for further attacks. In Washington, Lincoln approves the release of political prisoners who will take an oath of allegiance to the United States. Union forces take Bowling Green, Kentucky. A meeting of Confederate commanders ends with the decision that General Gideon Pillow's forces should attack the Federal right flank to the south of Fort Donelson.
15 February 1862 (Saturday)
Confederates under Gideon Pillow break through Union lines surrounding Fort Donelson, providing an escape route toward Nashville, Tennessee. Union General Grant tries to close the line with Generals Smith and McClernand, but is only partially successful. In Dover, Tennessee, the Confederate Generals discuss their options. General Floyd is resistant to surrender, but eventually leaves the battle area with General Pillow, placing General Buckner in the position of having to surrender Fort Donelson. The gunboats of Union Flag Officer Foote return to support the assault on Fort Donelson. Confederate commander Nathan Bedford Forrest leads his cavalry out of Fort Donelson, through a freezing swamp, to safety. His is the only organized escape from the fort. Confederate Commodore Tattnall attempts, unsuccessfully, to free passage for the steamer Ida from Fort Pulaski to Savannah. His attack on the Federal batteries at Venus Point fails, and he is forced back to Savannah.
16 February 1862 (Sunday)
Confederate General Simon B. Buckner, in Fort Donelson, asks General Grant for terms of surrender. Grant requires unconditional surrender and Buckner agrees. Confederate Secretary of the Navy Mallory is blamed for the loss because he did not counter the Union gunboats controlling the river. Union Flag Officer Foote sends gunboats upriver to Dover to destroy the Tennessee Iron Works. Finally General McClellan wires Foote that he will send him 600 sailors for his undermanned gunboats. The Confederates have lost Tennessee and Kentucky, and the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers are now controlled by the Union.
17 February 1862 (Monday)
At Norfolk, Virginia, the Confederate ironclad C.S.S. Virginia, formerly the U.S.S. Merrimack, is commissioned, but still short of crew. Confederate General Johnston greets Generals Floyd and Pillow in Nashville, Tennessee. As a result of his success at Fort Donelson, General Grant is promoted to Major General of Volunteers. Civilians in Tennessee flee in the face of Union invasion.
18 February 1862 (Tuesday)
In Richmond, Virginia, the first officially elected Confederate Congress meets. Forrest arrives in Nashville with his cavalry. The Confederate Generals in Nashville plan to evacuate the military from the city and move southeast toward Chattanooga, Tennessee.
19 February 1862 (Wednesday)
Flag Officer Foote's armada forces the Confederates to evacuate Clarksville, Tennessee. Union forces under General C. F. Smith then occupy Fort Defiance and take possession of Clarksville.
20 February 1862 (Thursday)
President and Mrs. Lincoln lose their son Willie to typhoid fever. Casualty notices from Fort Donelson are posted in both the North and South. Confederate troops evacuate Columbus, Kentucky. In Tennessee, Confederate Governor Isham Harris moves the state capital from Nashville to Memphis since Nashville is in the path of Union advances. Confederate General Johnston orders troops into a position southeast of Memphis near Murfreesboro. A thousand Confederate troops arrive late to the defense of Fort Donelson, only to be captured by Union troops. Union Flag Officer Farragut arrives at Ship Island to begin his assault on New Orleans
21 February 1862 (Friday)
The military in Nashville tries to prevent the fleeing citizens from taking military supplies because they would rather burn the supplies. Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest, among others, takes exception to the policy and helps people load wagons. Because there is more food than people and wagons, much of it is destroyed, including 30,000 pounds of bacon and ham, forming a river of grease. In New York, the convicted slave trader Nathaniel Gordon is hanged. This is the first time the Union has imposed such a punishment. In New Mexico Territory, Confederate General H.H. Sibley attacks Union troops near Fort Craig at Valvarde with success. Afterward, the Confederate troops seize six pieces of Union artillery and head toward Santa Fe.
22 February 1862 (Saturday)
Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated as President of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia. Union Flag Officer Farragut orders the coast survey team to sound the Mississippi passes and determine the safest channel for his approach to New Orleans. In Georgia, Union gunboats isolate Fort Pulaski from the rest of the Confederate defenses by entering the Savannah River through Wall's Cut.
23 February 1862 (Sunday)
Lincoln names Andrew Johnson as Military Governor of Tennessee. On the Tennessee River, Lieutenant Gwin, commander of the U.S.S. Tyler, seizes flour and wheat at the river docks of Eastport, Mississippi. Union Flag Officer Foote reconnoiters the Mississippi River down to Columbus, Kentucky with a force of four ironclads, two mortar boats, and three transports with 1000 troops.
24 February 1862 (Monday)
Union troops under Don Carlos Buell reach the bank of the Cumberland River opposite Nashville, while troop transports from Grant's army unload at the docks. Confederate Colonel Forrest's cavalry acts as the rear guard for the retreat toward Murfreesboro. In Washington, funeral services are held for Lincoln's son Willie. Lincoln's son Tad,who has also been ill, shows some improvement. Confederate Captain Buchanan readies his fleet at Norfolk, Virginia to engage the Union fleet in the Atlantic. Buchanan's fleet features the ironclad C.S.S. Virginia. Off the coast of Florida, the U.S.S. Harriet Lane, commanded by Lieutenant Jonathan M. Wainwright, captures the schooner Joanna Ward. In Virginia, Union General Banks takes Harper's Ferry, and there is minor skirmishing near Pohick Church.
25 February 1862 (Tuesday)
Union troops under Brigadier General William Nelson occupy the state capitol and assume control of Nashville. At Greenpoint, Long Island, the U.S.S. Monitor is commissioned.
26 February 1862 (Wednesday)
Lincoln signs historic legislation creating a national currency of United States notes and providing for the sale of stock to finance the currency. The New Orleans 'Committee of Safety' reports to Confederate President Davis that the severe lack of funds in the Navy Department prevents hiring labor.
27 February 1862 (Thursday)
In Richmond, the Confederate Congress gives President Davis the right to suspend the writ of habeus corpus. Davis calls for martial law in Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. Steering problems on the U.S.S. Monitor force Lieutenant Worden to return it to the Navy Yard for repairs. The Confederate ironclad Virginia is delayed from leaving Norfolk because of lack of gunpowder.
28 February 1862 (Friday)
Union General John Pope moves his fleet toward New Madrid, Missouri on the Mississippi River. Southerners hold a day of fasting at the request of President Davis. Union troops occupy Charleston, South Carolina.
1 March 1862 (Saturday)
The Confederates concentrate their forces at Fort Pillow on Island No. 10 in the Mississippi. In Corinth, Mississippi, Confederate General Albert S. Johnston moves his evacuated troops away from Nashville toward Corinth. Union General Grant moves his gunboats and troops up the Tennessee River toward Eastport, Mississippi. Union Flag Officer Foote urges the Secretary of the Navy to grant permission and arrange $20,000 funding to complete the large, fast steamer Eastport, captured from the Confederates in dry dock, as a Union gunboat. At Pittsburgh Landing, the U.S.S. Tyler, commanded by the aggressive Lieutenant Gwin, and the U.S.S. Lexington, under Lieutenant Shirk, land a party of sailors and army sharpshooters under cover of naval gunfire to determine the strength of the Confederate forces. Though Flag Officer Foote commends Gwin for his initiative, he admonishes Gwin not to land sailors again, because they risk being overpowered by a potentially greater number of Confederate ground forces. In Richmond, John Minor Botts is arrested for treason against the Confederacy. Richmond is now under martial law and Davis places General John Winder in control of the city.
2 March 1862 (Sunday)
Confederate General Leonidas Polk completes the evacuation of Confederate forces from Columbus, Kentucky, leaving it open for the approaching Union forces.
3 March 1862 (Monday)
Union Flag Officer Du Pont reports to the Secretary of the Navy that his force possesses Cumberland Island and Sound, Amelia Island, and the town of St. Marys, immediately south of the Georgia line. Aboard the U.S.S. Ottawa, Commander Drayton chases a train, firing from his gunboat for one and a half miles. Union General John Pope begins his attack on New Madrid, Missouri. Union troops occupy Columbus, Kentucky. General Halleck, angry because General Grant received acclaim for the victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, criticizes Grant for improper reporting and conduct and places Brigadier General C.F. Smith in charge of the Union forces going up the Tennessee River from Fort Henry.
4 March 1862 (Tuesday)
The United States Senate approves General Andrew Johnson as Brigadier General and Military Governor of Tennessee. Confederate General John Pemberton replaces General Robert E. Lee as commander of the Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and East Florida. President Davis calls Lee to Richmond to be a military advisor in Virginia. Several Confederate congressmen demand additional batteries to defend the Mississippi River.
5 March 1862 (Wednesday)
Union General Nathaniel Banks moves his troops up the Shenandoah Valley toward Winchester and Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson. The first group of Union General C.F. Smith's forces reaches Savannah, Tennessee, northeast of Corinth, Mississippi. The buildup of Union forces increases rapidly. Despite Union General Halleck's urging, Union Flag Officer Foote declines to attack Island No. 10 in the Mississippi because his vessels are not sufficiently repaired. In Arkansas, Confederate General Earl Van Dorn joins forces with General Sterling Price, who had been driven out of Missouri by the superior forces of Union General Samuel R. Curtis. Expecting an imminent attack, Van Dorn positions his troops just past Fayetteville and Elm Springs, Arkansas. Confederate General Beauregard takes charge of defenses along the Mississippi valley. Confederate General Johnston begins an operation to prevent further entrenchment of Union forces around Savannah, Tennessee.
6 March 1862 (Thursday)
The U.S.S. Monitor departs from New York Harbor for Hampton Roads, Virginia, with the U.S.S. Currituck and Sachem. In Arkansas, Confederate General Van Dorn engages Brigadier General Samuel R. Curtis' troops, and later moves his men during the night to attack from the rear at Pea Ridge. President Lincoln, responding to suggestions from senators, requests the states' cooperation to devise ways to abolish slavery, indicating the availability of Federal funds for emancipation efforts in individual states. In Richmond, the Confederate Congress authorizes military officials to dispose of Confederate crops and property if Union troops advance farther into Virginia.
7 March 1862 (Friday)
In Arkansas, Union General Curtis' troops are surprised from the rear by General Van Dorn's forces at Pea Ridge. Confederate Brigadier Generals Benjamin McCulloch and James McIntosh are killed during battle, creating confusion in the Confederate ranks. Union General Curtis concentrates his forces at nightfall and waits for General Van Dorn's attack on Saturday. Union General McClelland finally begins to move toward Confederate forces under General Johnston in Virginia. Johnston retreats ahead of McClellan. At Winchester, Virginia, Union General Nathaniel Banks' forces skirmish with 'Stonewall' Jackson's smaller force.
8 March 1862 (Saturday)
The Union is victorious in Arkansas at the Battle of Pea Ridge. The Confederates hastily retreat toward the Arkansas River. At Hampton Roads, Virginia, the ironclad C.S.S. Virginia steams out of Norfolk, under Flag Officer Buchanan, to attack a wooden Union squadron. Buchanan disables the U.S.S. Cumberland and Roanoke and heavily damages the U.S.S. Minnesota. The ironclad U.S.S. Monitor steams into Hampton Roads too late to stop the Virginia. Lincoln issues General War Order Number Two, providing for troops to defend the Federal capital.
9 March 1862 (Sunday)
In Virginia, the Confederate army under General Joseph Johnston retreats to a position at Rappahannock Station, close to the Rappahannock River. Instead of engaging the Confederates, McClellan's army returns to its bases around Alexandria, Virginia. At Hampton Roads, the U.S.S. Monitor engages the C.S.S. Virginia. Fighting continues for two hours until injuries force both commanders to pull back. In this historic first battle of ironclads, there is little damage to either ship. On the Georgia Coast, a Union naval force under Commander Gordon takes possession of the abandoned islands, Jekyll and St. Simon, and continues on land to Brunswick, Georgia.
11 March 1862 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Lincoln issues General War Order Number Three, removing General George McClellan from his command as General in Chief of the Union Army. Lincoln assigns McClellan to head the Army of the Potomac and refrains from appointing another General in Chief. Confederate President Davis refuses to accept the excuses of Generals Floyd and Pillow for leaving Fort Donelson and removes them from their commands. Confederate General Jackson withdraws south from Winchester, Virginia.
12 March 1862 (Wednesday)
Landing parties from the U.S.S. Ottawa, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas F. Stevens, occupy Jacksonville, Florida without opposition. Union troops occupy Winchester, Virginia. Citizens of Richmond, Virginia panic when they learn that Union General McClellan is proceeding to nearby York Peninsula. General Winder, in charge of the passport office, moves it to a place that can accomodate the rush of people who want to leave the city.
13 March 1862 (Thursday)
Union Commander D.D. Porter reports the arrival of the mortar fleet at Ship Island, Mississippi. At Fairfax Court House, Virginia, General McClellan presses President Lincoln for permission to move his Army of the Potomac to the York Peninsula and James River for an assault on Richmond. Lincoln reminds McClellan that the city of Washington must remain protected at all times. Union General Burnside's troops land at New Bern, North Carolina under cover of naval bombardment and begin to advance on the city. General Lee returns to Richmond as a military advisor to Confederate President Davis. Union General John Pope captures Point Pleasant, Missouri, and provokes Confederates to evacuate New Madrid. The Confederates abandon arms and provisions, valued at one million dollars, during their escape across the Mississippi River to the eastern bank and to Island No. 10.
14 March 1862 (Friday)
At Cairo, Illinois, Union Flag Officer Foote departs with seven gunboats and ten mortar boats to attack Island No. 10. Union General Burnside captures New Burn, North Carolina with minor fighting, thereby establishing another strategic Union port and supply point. In talks pertaining to slavery, Lincoln tries to justify the proposed financial compensation to slaveholders as a means to end the war.
15 March 1862 (Saturday)
Union Flag Officer Foote's gunboats and mortar boats reach the area above Island No. 10, but the fog and rain obstruct any action. General Grant resumes command in Tennessee after General Halleck absolves him of misconduct charges at Fort Donelson.
17 March 1862 (Monday)
Union General McClellan and the Army of the Potomac board trains in Alexandria, Virginia to begin the Peninsular campaign. Union General Grant resumes command of field forces in Tennessee, setting up his headquarters at Savannah, Tennessee.
18 March 1862 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
Confederate President Davis names Judas Benjamin as Secretary of State, relieving him of his highly criticized role as Secretary of War. The new Secretary of War will be George W. Randolph. Confederate General Johnston's men begin arriving in Corinth, Mississippi from Murfreesboro, but many are delayed due to poor roads and inadequate transportation.
19 March 1862 (Wednesday)
The Confederates defend Island No. 10 from Union Flag Officer Foote's flotilla.
20 March 1862 (Thursday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Union Major General Benjamin Butler assumes control of the troops that will assault New Orleans and southern Louisiana. In Strasburg, Virginia, Union troops pull back toward Winchester as Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson's troops advance. In South Carolina, General Burnside's troops move unopposed from New Bern to Washington, North Carolina.
21 March 1862 (Friday)
Despite heavy firing, Union Flag Officer Foote's flotilla is still unable to penetrate Confederate defenses on Island No. 10. General Halleck commends Foote's efforts.
22 March 1862 (Saturday)
As Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson and his troops advance toward Strasburg, Virginia, Union soldiers skirmish with them near Kernstown, Virginia. In Liverpool, England, the C.S.S. Florida, disguised as the British ship Oreto, departs. It is the first warship built in Britain for the Confederacy.
23 March 1862 (Sunday)
Confederate General Jackson's 2,700 men clash with a Union force of 11,000 at Kernstown, Virginia. Outnumbered, Jackon's troops retreat to Newton. Lincoln sends men to pursue Jackson and orders General McDowell's troops to remain to defend Washington. This divide in Union forces weakens the Peninsular campaign and marks the beginning of the Shenandoah campaign.
24 March 1862 (Monday)
Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson orders his men to retreat to Mt. Jackson, Virginia. The last of Confederate General Johnston's men arrive at Corinth, Mississippi from Murfreesboro, having been delayed by rough roads. The emancipation issue still hotly debated, Lincoln writes that 'we should urge it persuasively, and not menacingly, upon the South.'
25 March 1862 (Tuesday)
Two Confederate ships and one Union ship fight inconclusively at Pass Christian, Mississippi. Union General Butler's troop transports arrive at Ship Island.
26 March 1862 (Wednesday)
Confederate forces are defeated at Hammondsville and Warrensburg, Missouri. In the Colorado Territory, Union forces fight Confederate forces and take 50 Confederate cavalrymen prisoner. In the New Mexico Territory, Union forces win a skirmish with Confederates, but the Confederates regroup and pursue them as they fall back.
28 March 1862 (Friday)
Skirmishes occur along the Orange and Alexandria Railroad in Virginia. In the New Mexico Territory a major battle ends in victory for the Union at La Glorietta Pass, effectively ending the Confederate invasion.
29 March 1862 (Saturday)
In western Virginia, General Fremont takes command from General Rosecrans, who departs for a new command in the west. In Corinth, Mississippi, Confederate General Johnston takes command of the Kentucky and Mississippi forces. In Middleburg, Virginia, Union forces use the machine gun for the first time during a skirmish in the small town of Middleburg, Virginia. The power of the machine gun forces the Confederates to retreat.
30 March 1862 (Sunday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day | View Jenkins Chronology]
Union Flag Officer Foote orders Commander Henry Walke of the U.S.S. Carondelet to slip down river from Island No. 10 in the fog to cover the maneuvers of General Pope's army. Through these maneuvers, Flag Officer Foote hopes to attack Confederate holders of the island from both the front and rear to force a surrender.
1 April 1862 (Tuesday) [View Jenkins' entry for the day]
In the Shenandoah campaign, Union forces push through to Edinburg, Virginia and Confederate General Jackson's troops are forced to retreat back up the valley. At Island No. 10 in Mississippi, a small Union raiding party steals six guns from the Confederate hold and escapes without a loss.
2 April 1862 (Wednesday)
Confederate General Johnston prepares his forces in Corinth, Mississippi to attack Union forces at Pittsburg Landing the next day. Union General Grant awaits reinforcements at Pittsburgh Landing in order to attack the Confederates at Corinth. Along the Mississippi River, tornadoes cause extensive damage to military installations from Cairo, Illinois to New Madrid, Missouri.
3 April 1862 (Thursday)
The United States Senate votes to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with a vote of 29 to 14. Lincoln is concerned that only 20,000 troops remain to guard Washington and orders an additional corps to remain as McClellan advances in the Peninsula campaign. General Johnston's troops move to attack Union General Grant at Shiloh, but Johnston's troops are delayed and do not attack. Grant's reinforcements begin to arrive.
4 April 1862 (Friday)
Confederate General Johnston's forces are again delayed and fail to attack Grant at Shiloh. Grant's reinforcements continue to arrive. Grant does not expect an open attack from the Confederates. Union General McClellan proceeds to Yorktown and calls for more reinforcements.
5 April 1862 (Saturday)
Andrew Johnson, Federal Military Governor of Tennessee, suspends the mayor and other city officials for refusing to take a loyalty oath to the Union. General Joseph Johnston gathers Confederate reinforcements to meet an imminent attack from Union General McClellan at Yorktown. Union General Grant's forces are still unaware of General Albert Johnston's plans to attack Shiloh.
6 April 1862 (Sunday)
The Battle of Shiloh, or Pittsburgh Landing, begins. Though Confederate General Albert Johnston's troops force Grant's troops to fall back after a few hours, no decisive victory is reached. General Johnston is killed and General Beauregard assumes command of the Confederate forces.
7 April 1862 (Monday)
The Battle of Shiloh ends with no decisive victory for either side, but heavy losses for each. Although both Confederate and Union leaders send for reinforcements, only Grant's reinforcements arrive in time. General Beauregard is forced to retreat to Corinth and Grant's Union forces reclaim the area they had previously held. Union General McClellan entrenches his forces outside of Yorktown, Virginia. The U.S.S. Pensacola and Mississippi are brought up the Mississippi River to aid in the attack on New Orleans.
8 April 1862 (Tuesday)
In Mississippi, General Beauregard collects the remaining Confederates and organizes a defense, while General Grant's troops clean the camps and bury their dead. Heavy rain and muddy conditions cause trouble for both Union and Confederate forces.
9 April 1862 (Wednesday)
Cleanup and reorganization continues for Union and Confederate forces in both Shiloh and Corinth, Mississippi. Confederates are still struggling to reach the retreat point at Corinth, and civilian relief organizations send supplies of medicine and food to Shiloh where Confederate and Union wounded wait for care.
10 April 1862 (Thursday)
Cleanup and reorganization continue in Shiloh and Corinth, Mississippi. The United States Congress passes a joint resolution for the gradual emancipation of slaves in all states and it is approved and signed by President Lincoln. Union General Wallace dies from wounds received during the Battle of Shiloh. Union Colonel Gillmore uses stolen guns to bombard the masonry walls of Confederate Fort Pulaski, an attack which lasts through the night and into the following day.
11 April 1862 (Friday)
In Georgia, Union Colonel Gillmore's attack on Confederate Fort Pulaski is victorious, and he captures 360 Confederate prisoners. The victory effectively ends the Confederate use of Savannah, Georgia as a port for the remainder of the war. In Virginia, the ironclad C.S.S. Virginia captures three merchant ships and withdraws without engaging the U.S.S. Monitor. Union General Halleck assumes control of General Grant's forces at Shiloh, and reinforcements arrive to prepare an attack on Confederate troops in Corinth.
12 April 1862 (Saturday)
More Confederate troops are sent to Yorktown, but they are still outnumbered by General McClellan's forces. Union spy James Andrews and other volunteers board a train in Marietta, Georgia, disguised as passengers. When the passengers and crew exit the train at Big Shanty, Georgia, Andrews and his crew detach the locomotive General and head North. The crew immediately board the engine Texas and pursue the hijackers. Eventually the General runs out of fuel and Andrews and his men are captured. Later, Andrews and seven others are executed, eight escape from prison, and six are paroled. This event later comes to be known as the Great Locomotive Chase.
13 April 1862 (Sunday)
Union General David Hunter declares all slaves to be confiscated and freed, an order which is later rescinded by Lincoln.
14 April 1862 (Monday)
General Halleck, now in command of Union forces at Shiloh, increases reconnaissance on Confederate movements in Corinth, Mississippi.
16 April 1862 (Wednesday)
President Lincoln signs a bill passed by the United States Congress that prohibits slavery in Washington, D.C. Confederate President Davis signs a bill authorizing the conscription of every white male between the ages of 18 and 35, without provisions for exemptions.
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