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Report of Colonel O.H. Howard: [Albany, Georgia], 1868 Sept. 19

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Type: Official reports | Text
Creator: Howard, O. H.
Title: Report of Colonel O.H. Howard: [Albany, Georgia], 1868 Sept. 19
Date: 1868 Sept. 19
Description: Freedman's Bureau subassistant commissioner O.H. Howard writes this report at 7P.M. on September 19, 1868, a day notable in Georgia history as the date of the event that came to be known as the Camilla Massacre, or the Camilla Riot, an incident that occurred in Camilla, Georgia when Republicans and freedemen came to the town to hold a political rally and met violent opposition from the townspeople. Howard's report gives details of the day as they became known to him that evening when witnesses, among them Ishmael Lonon, a freedman who was to be elected to the Georgia Legislature in 1880, began gathering at his office in Albany, Georgia. Howard reports that Lonon gave his account of the group's several encounters on the outskirts Camilla prior to the initial violence in town, between both a mounted white man who advised Lonon not to go into town and Mitchell County Sheriff Mumford S. Poore. Lonon rode ahead of the group of Republicans and freedmen, which included Republican party candidate for elector John Murphy, Republican congressional candidate William P. Pierce, Republican plantation owner Francis Flagg Putney, and ousted Republican Georgia state legislator Philip Joiner. They were accompanied by a bandwagon carrying bandleader Peter Hines and other musicians. As the group entered Camilla they encountered a "mounted man", who began firing into the wagon. Most of the freedmen, "Being unarmed" fled. Howard's report also includes details of the escape of Joiner and Murphy as given to him by Lonon, as well as a list of those known to be wounded or killed at that time. Howard states that a number of freedmen have gathered at his office and that he has advised them to remain peaceful, as the matter will be investigated and the guilty parties brought to justice. At the conclusion of his report, Howard makes mention of J.W. Armstrong Jr.'s recent purchase of a number of weapons for the Young Men's Democratic Club. Howard thinks that they were taken to Camilla and used there.

Document ID: cam013.

Digital image and transcription created by the Digital Library of Georgia in 2001 of a photocopy held by DeSoto Trail Regional Library of an original record held by the National Archives.

Subjects: United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands | African Americans--Georgia--History--19th century | African Americans--Georgia--Social conditions--To 1964 | Freedmen--Georgia--Political activity | Freedmen--Georgia--Violence against | Reconstruction--Georgia | Political violence--Georgia--Camilla | Mitchell County (Ga.)--Race relations | Mitchell County (Ga.)--Politics and government | Camilla (Ga.) | Mitchell County (Ga.)
Contributors: DeSoto Trail Regional Library System | United States. National Archives and Records Administration
Online Publisher: Athens, Ga. : Digital Library of Georgia, 2001
Rights and Usage: This work is the property of the University of Georgia Libraries. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching, and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

Cite as: [title of item], United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Records. National Archives and Records Administration, presented in the Digital Library of Georgia

Related Materials: Mode of access: World Wide Web. | System requirements: AT&T DjVu browser plug-in needed to view images of documents. | Forms part of United States. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Records held by the National Archives.
Persistent Link to Item: http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/zlcu/id:cam013

Related Institutions: DeSoto Trail Regional Library System
Digital Library of Georgia
United States. National Archives and Records Administration
Collection Information: Civil Unrest in Camilla, Georgia, 1868 : Reconstruction, Republicanism, and Race